The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Acidia cognata (Wiedemann, 1817)
[Diptera: Tephritidae]

Tephritis cognata Wiedemann, 1817. Zool. Mag. 1: 75
Acidia cognata (Wiedemann, 1817); White, 1988. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5a): 24, 36.


Leaf-mine: An upper surface corridor mine, becoming strongly broadened and blotch-like. The mine can occupy a considerable part of a small leaf. Mines frequently merge and then accommodate several larvae. Pupation external, in the soil.

Upper-surface corridor, in the end strongly widened and blotchy; may occupy a large portion of smaller leaves. Mines may coalesce, and contain several larvae then. Primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous (picture). Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Makes upper surface blotches (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The anterior spiracles of the larva are illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellow; anterior spiracle openings arranged in large arcs, not elevated on a fan-like structure; posterior spiracles each with a central opening larger and more raised than the lateral openings.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Petasites       Robbins, 1991: 110
Petasites       British leafminers
Petasites fragrans Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Petasites fragrans Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 59
Petasites hybridus Winter Aconite British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 59
? Senecio vulgaris Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 109
Tussilago       Robbins, 1991: 110
Tussilago       British leafminers
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 59

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Arctium lappa Greater Burdock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 59
Homogyne       Bladmineerders van Europa
Homogyne       Hering, 1957
Homogyne       White, 1988: 59
Petasites       Hering, 1957
Petasites albus White Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites hybridus Winter Aconite British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites paradoxus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites spurius     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Senecio       Hering, 1957
? Senecio       White, 1988: 59
Tussilago       Hering, 1957
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: October-November.

Time of year - adults: May-June.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Throughout the British Isles (White, 1988) including Warwickshire (Sutton Park and Corley) (Robbins, 1991: 110), West Yorkshire (Cromwell Bottom LNR) and Cumbria (Roudsea Wood and Mosses NNR) (British leafminers), Ayrshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Caerrnarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Dorset, Dumfrieshire, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Perth, East Ross, Easterness, Edinburgh, Elgin, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Merionethshire, North Hampshire, North Somerset, Nottinghamshire, South Aberdeen, South Hampshire, South Lancaster, South Wiltshire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey, West Ross, West Suffolk, West Sussex, Westmorland, Wigtownshire, and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Merz and Korneyev in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (de Meijere, 1939), Belgium (Leclercq and de Bruyn, 1991), Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine (Merz and Korneyev in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Arctium lappa, Petasites fragrans, Petasites albus, Petatasites hybridus, ? Senecio vulgaris, Tussilago farfara

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis illustris Graham, 1963 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Xestomnaster chrysochlorus (Walker, 1846) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Adelurola florimela (Haliday, 1838) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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