The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Orchestes rusci (Herbst, 1795)
[Coleoptera : Curculionidae]

Curculio rusci Herbst, 1795
Curculio bifasciatus
Paykull, 1800
Salius salicis
Schrank, 1798
Rhynchaenus rusci
(Herbst, 1795)
Orchestes rusci
(Herbst, 1795)

Leaf-miner: A rather stubby, gradually widening, corridor that usually begins near the leaf tip and descends along the leaf margin (especially in the first generation). Finally an almost perfectly circular excision is cut, in which the larva drops to the ground for pupation (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A broad gallery with scattered frass, usually along the edge of the leaf, ending at a circular blotch from which a case is cut leaving a round hole (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of beetles have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles and lack abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is a yellow colour, with distinctive anterior markings (British leafminers). Illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Pupa: The pupae of beetles have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in British leafminers.

Adult of Orchestes rusci

Adult of Orchestes rusci
Dersingham, Norfolk
Image: © Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Betula nana Dwarf Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Bivoltine: late spring and summer (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Anglesey, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, Dumfriesshire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Ross, East Suffolk, East Sussex, East Sutherland, Easterness, Elgin, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire, Merionethshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Monmouthshire, Montgomeryshire, North Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeenshire, South Essex, South Hampshire, South Somerset, South Wiltshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Kent, West Lancashire, West Norfolk, West Perthshire, West Suffolk, West Sussex and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (InvertebrateIreland Online).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Bulgaria, ? Corsica, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - East, Slovakia. Also recorded in the East Palaearctic (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Betula nana, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.

External links: Search the internet:

Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life, as Curculio rusci
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist

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