The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza in Glasshouses and/or Quarantine Interceptions


Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza strigata and three non-British polyphagous agromyzids, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii, have been recorded in glasshouses and/or quarantine interceptions



Key for the identification of the known mines of Liriomyza species recorded
in Glasshouses and/or Quarantine Interceptions


1a > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families in Britain and many more elsewhere - Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Capparidaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Celastraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dipsacaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Loasaceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Polemoniaceae, Primulaceae, Resedaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae, Verbenaceae and Violaceae. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Widespread and common in continental Europe including Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland (Spencer, 1976: 270), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa, Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558; Dempewolf, 2001: 152), Albania, Belarus, Corsica, Cyclades Is., Czech Republic, Dodecanese Is, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, North Aegean Is., Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards in the [former] U.S.S.R. to the Republics of Kirghiz, Kazakh and Uzbek (Spencer, 1976: 270).

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Mine not associated with the mid-rib

2

2a > Leaf-miner: A tightly coiled, almost blotch-like mine.

A polyphagous pest of ornamental and vegetable crops occasionally intercepted at UK points of entry. Hosts cited here include 155 plant genera in 41 plant families worldwide - Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Basellaceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Iridaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae, Plantaginaceae, Poaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Portulacaceae, Primulaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Turneraceae, Typhaceae, Valerianaceae, Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae.

The species has been found under glass in England and Wales but all populations have been and continue to be eradicated (Dom Collins, pers. comm.).

However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/.

Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess, 1880) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2b > Leaf-miner: An irregular serpentine mine tending to be restricted by veins within segments of the leaf and undulating between upper and lower surface.

Corridor; usually the mine begins with a short upper-surface stretch, then continues lower-surface, in the sponge parenchyma. Often the mine follows the midrib or a thick lateral vein for long distances. Most mines are found in the basal half of the leaf. Frass in thread fragments and strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A highly polyphagous pest of ornamental and vegetable crops occasionally intercepted at UK points of entry. The species has been found under glass in England and Wales, but all populations have been and continue to be eradicated (Dom Collins, pers. comm.). Hosts cited here include 128 plant genera in 34 plant families worldwide - Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Alstromeriaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Balsaminaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Goodeniaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Primulaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae and Violaceae.

Liriomyza huidobrensis is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: info@fera.gsi.gov.uk) However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/.

Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard, 1926) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2c > Leaf-miner: An irregular serpentine mine, indistinguishable from mine of Liriomyza bryoniae.

Corridor, freely winding through the leaf. Frass in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A highly polyphagous pest of ornamental and vegetable crops occasionally intercepted on produce at UK points of entry. It cannot survive cold areas except in glasshouses. Hosts cited here include 134 plant genera in 33 plant families worldwide - Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Capparidaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dioscoraceae, Dipsacaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Moringaceae, Oleaceae, Onagraceae, Passifloraceae, Plantaginaceae, Poaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae.

Liriomyza sativae is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: info@fera.gsi.gov.uk) However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/.

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938 [Diptera: Agromyzidae]

2d > Leaf-miner: A short, irregular, linear upper surface mine on any part of the leaf. Also recorded from young pods (Bland, 1997a).

Long corridor mine. As a rule the first part of the mine is lower-surface, the later part upper-surface. Often the loops are so dense that a secondary blotch is the result. Because upper- and lower-surface corridor segments often cross, the mine obtains a strange array of transparant patches. There is no association with the midrib. Frass in strings and thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine not associated with the veins or midrib of the leaf (It is this character which enables distinction from another Agromyzid pest species - Liriomyza huidobriensis). The larvae may leave one leaf (if not large enough) and enter another leaf, via the petiole). It exits the leaf to pupate through a semi-circular slit in the upper surface of the leaf (British leafminers).

On 119 plant genera in 31 plant families - Alismataceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Basellaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Loasaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pedaliaceae, Piperaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polemoniaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae and Verbenaceae - of which only 4 plant genera in 2 plant families, including Dahlia, in Britain. Local, probably introduced to Britain. Widespread in continental Europe particularly in Botanical Gardens and glasshouses. Also recorded in Egypt.

Liriomyza bryoniae is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: info@fera.gsi.gov.uk) However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/.

Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].



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