The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Rhamphus pulicarius (Herbst, 1795)
[Coleoptera : Curculionidae]


Curculio pulicarius Herbst, 1795
Ramphus flavicornis
Clairville, 1798
Rhamphus pulicarius (Herbst, 1795).


Leaf-miner: Generally small, upper-surface, pear-shaped mines, half of their surface stuffed with frass. In the frass-free part an oval, flattened larva. Often several mines in a leaf. Prior to oviposition the larvae eat, a large number of tiny holes in the leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The larva over winters in the upper surface mine. There can be several mines in a leaf (British leafminers).


Larva: The larvae of beetles have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles and lack abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Rhamphus pulicarius larva,  dorsal
Rhamphus pulicarius larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Pupa: The pupae of beetles have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Pitkin & Plant
Myricaceae        
Myrica gale Bog-myrtle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salicaceae        
Populus       British leafminers
Salix       British leafminers
Salix       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Betula nana Dwarf Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myricaceae        
Myrica gale Bog-myrtle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salicaceae        
Populus alba White Poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus tremula Aspen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix aurita Eared Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix babylonica Weeping Crack-willow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix caprea Goat Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix cinerea Grey Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix daphnoides European Violet-willow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix euxina or x fragilis Crack-willow or Hybrid Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix hastata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix pentandra Bay Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix purpurea Purple Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix repens Creeping Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix triandra Almond Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: August - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Dorset, Dumfrieshire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Ross, EAst SUffolk, East Sussex, Easterness, Glamorgan, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire, Merionethshire, Monmouthshire, Montgomeryshire, North Ebudes, Northanptonshire, South Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire, Shropshire, South Hampshire, South Lancaster, South Lincolnshire, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire West Lancaster, West Norfolk, West Ross, West Suffolk, West Sussex, Westerness and Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas)

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Alonso-Zarazaga in Fauna Europaea) and in Ireland (InvertebrateIreland Online).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Bulgaria, Corsica, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia - East, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia and Yugoslavia.

Also recorded in the East Palaearctic and North Africa (Alonso-Zarazaga in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Betula nana, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Myrica gale, Populus alba, Populus nigra, Populus tremula, Salix alba, >Salix aurita, Salix babylonica, Salix caprea, Salix cinerea, Salix daphnoides, Salix fragilis, Salix pentandra, Salix purpurea, Salix repens, Salix triandra, Salix viminalis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.



External links: Search the internet:

Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life, as Curculio pulicarius
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist

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