Larva: The larvae of beetles have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles and lack abdominal legs (see examples).
The larvae of Zeugophora species are yellow and flattened. They
live communal, and leave the mine through an upper-surface exit
slit (see Bladmineerders van Europa).
Four Zeugophora species are known from Europe: flavicollis, scutellaris, subspinosa and turneri. (The Fauna Europaea (2007) mentions a fifth species, Z. frontalis, but there is wide consensus that this is but a colour form of scutellaris). The four remaining species make large, blackish-brown upper-surface blotches. The eggs are deposited at the leaf underside; they are inserted in a small pit, that is covered by secretion (Urban, 1922a). This oviposition site remains visible as a transparant spot in the mine, often near its border. The larva is yellow, flattened, and legless. They live in a small group in the mine, vacating the mine before pupation through an upper-surface exit slit. See Warchalowski (2003a) for a key to beetles of Z. flavicollis, scutellaris, subspinosa and turneri. Only shortly ago I discovered the key to the Zeugophora species of North America and Europe by Jong Eun Lee (1998a). Unfortunately, Jong Eun Lee has not taken Z. turneri into account. Quite confusing however is that he states that the mandibles of the other three European species have mandibles with 2 teeth, while both Steinhausen (1994a) and Urban (1922a) write that flavicollis has 3 mandibular teeth. Also an illustration of the larva of Z. scutellaris in Lawson (1991a) shows three, equal sized, teeth (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of beetles have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
June - September (Hering, 1957).
of year - adults: Unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Derbyshire,
Dorset, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk,
East Sussex, Easterness, Elgin, Glamorganshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire,
Huntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Leicestershire, Mid-west Yorkshire,
North Essex, North Hampshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset,
North-east Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, South Northumberland, Nottinghamshire,
Oxfordshire, Shropshire, South Essex, South Hampshire, South Lancashire,
South Lincolnshire, South Wiltshire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Gloucestershire, West Kent,
West Norfolk, West Suffolk, West Sussex, Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN
elsewhere: Europe including French and Italian mainlands
(Alonso-Zarazaga in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: