The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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HEPATICA. Hepatica. [Ranunculaceae]


Only one species of Hepatica is recorded wild in Britain, Common Hepatica (Hepatica nobilis).

Only one British miner is recorded on Hepatica.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Hepatica


1 > Leaf-miner: A blotch mine is formed from the leaf edge. The larva feeds dorsal side towards the top of the leaf and it is a pale colour, with a darker head. This species is thought to have one generation each year (British leafminers). Very transparant full depth blotch that starts at the leaf margin (there a clump of frass), that finally occupies a major part of the leaf. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The larvae of sawflies have at least six thoracic legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles but no abdominal legs.

On Hepatica in Britain and elsewhere. Known only from Scotland (Edinburgh area) in Britain and Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Romania and Sweden elsewhere.

Pseudodineura mentiens (C. G. Thomson, 1871) [Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae].



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