The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

POLYPODIUM. Polypody. [Polypodiaceae]

Three species of Polypodium are recorded in Britain. All are native and include Intermediate Polypody (P. interjectum), Polypody (P. vulgare) and Southern Polypody (P. cambricum).

Two Diptera miners, the agromyzids Chromatomyia scolopendri and Phytoliriomyza hilarella, are recorded on Polypodium in Britain, both on P. vulgare.

Elsewhere the agromyzid Chromatomyia scolopendri and the anthomyiid Chirosia histricina are recorded mining Polypodium.

No non-Diptera miners are recorded on Polypodium in Britain.

N.B. The key to mines below includes mines recorded on Asplenium and Ceterach (Aspleniaceae) and Polypodium and Phyllitis (Polypodiaceae).

Key for the identification of the mines of British
insects recorded on
Asplenium, Ceterach, Polypodium
and Phyllitis

1a > Leaf-miner: A short linear mine in single section of a frond. Pupation external.

On Pterdium aquilinum and Polypodium vulgare, but not yet on Asplenium, Cetarach or Phyllitis, in Britain. Also Asplenium elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread througout Europe.

Phytoliriomyza hilarella (Zetterstedt, 1848) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: A long greenish linear mine, frequently following a vein; mines can be up to 10 cm long. Pupation internal. Pupariumwhitish-yellow with minute black spiracles, anterior spiracles projecting through the leaf epidermis.

On Asplenium ruta-muraria, Ceterach, Phyllitis scolopendrium and Polypodium vulgare in Britain and in addition to these Asplenium scolopendrium and Asplenium septentrionale and Ceterach officinarum elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in much of Europe.

Chromatomyia scolopendri (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].


1c > Leaf-miner: Larvae usually feed on the underside of a fern frond under an untidy mass of sporangia, but on occasion enter the leaf to make an extensive irregular blotch mine (British leafminers). Usually the larva lives free under the leaf, under an inrregular mass of spun soredia and frass. The larva feeds on the sori, and larva betrays its presence as a sorus on an unusual place. Sometimes also elongate full depth blotches are made (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Recorded on Asplenium, Phyllitis, Polystichum and Dryopteris, but not yet on Cetarach or Polypodium, in Britain and Asplenium, Ceterach, Phyllitis, Polystichum and Dryopteris elsewhere. Widespread in southern England and Wales. Initially occurred mainly near coasts, but it is increasingly recorded inland. Outside of Britain and Northern Ireland, only recorded in Madeira.

Psychoides filicivora (Meyrick, 1937) [Lepidoptera: Tineidae]


1d > Leaf-miner:Full-depth corridor or blotch, often positioned along the leaf margin. In the first part much, brown-black, fine-grained frass, later parts of the mine almost free from frass. After hibernation the larva lives free in an untidy case of silk, covered with remants of sori (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Recorded on Asplenium, Ceterach, Phyllitis and Polystichum, but not yet on Poypodium, in Britain and Asplenium, Ceterach, Phyllitis, Pteridium and Dryopteris elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Psychoides verhuella Bruand, 1853 [Lepidoptera: Tineidae]


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