(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)
Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds
species of Polypodium are recorded in Britain. All are native
and include Intermediate Polypody (P. interjectum), Polypody
(P. vulgare) and Southern Polypody (P. cambricum). The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for Polypodium.
Diptera miners, the agromyzids Chromatomyia
scolopendri and Phytoliriomyza
hilarella, are recorded on Polypodium in Britain,
both on P. vulgare.
the agromyzid Chromatomyia
scolopendri and the anthomyiid Chirosia
histricina are recorded mining Polypodium.
No non-Diptera miners are recorded on Polypodium in Britain.
The key to mines below includes mines recorded on Asplenium
and Ceterach (Aspleniaceae)
and Polypodium and Phyllitis
Key for the identification of the mines of British
insects recorded on
Asplenium, Ceterach, Polypodium and Phyllitis
1a > Leaf-miner: A short linear mine in single section of a frond. Pupation
On Pterdium aquilinum and Polypodium vulgare, but not yet on Asplenium, Cetarach or Phyllitis, in Britain.
Also Asplenium elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded
in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread througout Europe.
hilarella (Zetterstedt, 1848) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].
1b > Leaf-miner: A long greenish linear mine, frequently following a vein;
mines can be up to 10 cm long. Pupation internal. Pupariumwhitish-yellow
with minute black spiracles, anterior spiracles projecting through
the leaf epidermis.
On Asplenium ruta-muraria, Ceterach, Phyllitis scolopendrium and
Polypodium vulgare in Britain and in addition to these Asplenium
scolopendrium and Asplenium septentrionale and Ceterach
officinarum elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded
in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in much of Europe.
scolopendri (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].
1c > Leaf-miner: Larvae usually feed on the underside of a fern frond under an untidy
mass of sporangia, but on occasion enter the leaf to make an extensive
irregular blotch mine (British
the larva lives free under the leaf, under an inrregular mass of
spun soredia and frass. The larva feeds on the sori, and larva betrays
its presence as a sorus on an unusual place. Sometimes also elongate
full depth blotches are made (Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa).
on Asplenium, Phyllitis, Polystichum and Dryopteris, but not yet on Cetarach or Polypodium, in Britain and Asplenium,
Ceterach, Phyllitis, Polystichum and Dryopteris elsewhere.
Widespread in southern England and Wales. Initially occurred mainly
near coasts, but it is increasingly recorded inland. Outside of
Britain and Northern Ireland, only recorded in Madeira.
filicivora (Meyrick, 1937) [Lepidoptera: Tineidae]
1d > Leaf-miner:Full-depth corridor or blotch, often positioned along the leaf
margin. In the first part much, brown-black, fine-grained frass,
later parts of the mine almost free from frass. After hibernation
the larva lives free in an untidy case of silk, covered with remants
of sori (Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa).
on Asplenium, Ceterach, Phyllitis and Polystichum, but not yet on Poypodium, in Britain and Asplenium, Ceterach, Phyllitis, Pteridium and Dryopteris elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental
verhuella Bruand, 1853 [Lepidoptera: Tineidae]