1 > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short
lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972:
51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976:
270, 271 (fig. 486)).
whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib;
side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing
more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long
strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow,
tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise
is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor
is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation
outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and
showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British