Leaf-miner: The young larvae make very small (≤ 3 mm) corridor or blotch mines, usually several in a leaf. The primary mine generally lies adjacent to the midrib; as far as I have seen the egg always is upper-surface. The secondary mines often are found in leaves without primary miner: obviously the larvae easily move to another leaf. The secondary mines are made from the underside of the leaf; while moving around silk is deposited under the leaf. Most frass is ejected from the mines, and part of the frass grains remain stuck in the spinning. Rather soon the larvae start living completely free in a common spinning under a leaf. They hibernate in a hibernaculum and continue living free in the spring (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: Social; head black, with brown and white lines; body mottled reddish brown to fuscus grey (Agassiz, 1996a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: Illustrated by Patočka (1997a). (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Larvae from autumn till in June (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: July, when it can be attracted to light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly common in the southern half of Britain, but not occurring northwards of Yorkshire
(UKMoths and NBN
Gateway). Recently recorded from Chorlton, Manchester (Ben Smart).
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kalingrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.