Leaf-miner/Leaf-spinner: Numerous, short, narrow galleries, mainly in the basal half of the leaf. Frass in a central interrupted line. The older larvae live free under a communal web (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The larvae initially mine the leaves, making narrow galleries and then feed gregariously in a slight web (British
Larva: The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and British
Pupa: See Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June-July; September-October (British
leafminers). Larvae in June-July and September - October (Agassiz, 1996a), but only the young larvae of the first generation do mine (Hering, 1957a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults:There are two generations, adult moths being on the wing in April and May, and again in August. The moth can be taken at light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England and Wales (NBN
Gateway). It is fairly locally distributed in the southern half of Britain, north to the Midlands, although there are records from Northumberland too (UKMoths).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.