The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Agromyza alunulata (Hendel, 1931)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Dizygomyza alunulata Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 24
Agromyza distorta Griffiths, 1955a. Entomologist's Gaz. 6: 10
Agromyza alunulata (Hendel, 1931); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 36 (figs 101-2), 38, 123
Agromyza alunulata (Hendel, 1931); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 95, figs 134-138.
Agromyza alunulata (Hendel, 1931); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 355, 358 (figs 1335-6), 359, 364.


Leaf-mine: A blotch mine, larvae feeding first towards apex of leaf and then downwards towards base. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 95).

Long, shallow corridor, initially running up towards the leaf tip, then switching direction and descending. Here and there remain small islands of uneaten leaf parenchyma. Frass in regularly dispersed granules. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Griffiths (1955a), Griffiths (1963b) and Hering (1956); The larval mandibles have 5 teeth; the anterior spiracles are greatly enlarged and unusual in each having 200-250 minute bulbs (adaptation to aquatic environment) (Spencer, 1972b: 38, fig. 102).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Dimorphic; summer form of normal shape, red and thin shelled; winter form black, thick shelled and strongly arched (Spencer, 1976: 95).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 135
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Glyceria       Spencer, 1990: 355
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 95
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Surrey (Ash Vale) (Spencer, 1972b: 38); Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 135); South Yorkshire and Monmouthshire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Local in western Europe including Germany, Denmark and Finland (Spencer, 1976: 95), French mainland and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Glyceria maxima

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus rotundiventris (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela flavicoxa (Thomson, 1895) (as Antrusa) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela melanocera (Thomson, 1895) (as Antrusa) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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