The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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DIPTERA LARVAE - CEPHALO-PHARYNGEAL SKELETON
(examples not to scale)

Larva : Coleoptera : Diptera : Hymenoptera : Lepidoptera
Pupa/Puparium : Coleoptera : Diptera : Hymenoptera : Lepidoptera
Diptera : Anterior spracles : Posterior spiracles : Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton

Diptera larvae have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video).

Agromyza alnivora,  cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton,  lateral
Agromyza alnivora
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Agromyza ferruginosa Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton,  lateral
Agromyza ferruginosa
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

   

Agromyza idaeina Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton lateral
Agromyza idaeiana
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton lateral

Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Agromyza lathyri Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton,  lateral
Agromyza lathyri
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral

Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

   
Agromyza mobilis
Agromyza mobilis
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral

Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Agromyza nigripes Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton,  lateral
Agromyza nigripes
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral

Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

   

Agromyza phragmitidis
Agromyza phragmitidis
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral

Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Agromyza reptans
Agromyza reptans
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral

Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)



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