The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza bicophaga Hering, 1925
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza bicophaga Hering, 1925. Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 20: 130
Agromyza bicophaga Hering, 1925; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 40 (fig. 124), 42, 118
Agromyza bicophaga Hering, 1925; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 112, 127, 129 (figs 461-2).


Leaf-mine: Mine beginning linear, later becoming a primary blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 42).

Large blotch, preceded by a corridor that meticulously follows the leaf margin. Blotch clearly upper-surface, nowhere mined out deeper than the corridor, and equally transparent. The blotch is not oriented on the midrib. Frass in the corridor in short streaks along the sides, in the blotch as small grains that partly may be deliquescent. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926a, 1938a) (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fabaceae        
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 46
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Vicia sylvatica Wood Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 46

Hosts elsewhere:

Fabaceae        
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia dumetorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia grandiflora     Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia hirsuta Hairy Tare British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia pisiformis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sativa Common Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra Narrow-leaved Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Vicia angustifolia

Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sylvatica Wood Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia tenuifolia Fine-leaved Vetch   Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia tetrasperma Smooth Tare British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 112
Vicia tetrasperma Smooth Tare British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia villosa Fodder Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Surrey (Chipstead - mine only) (Spencer, 1972b: 42); Warwickshire (Foleshill) (Robbins, 1991: 46) and Cambridgeshire and South=west Yorkshire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Germany (Berlin) (Spencer, 1990: 127), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Poland, Sardinia and Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Vicia cracca, Vicia hirsuta, Vicia sativa, Vicia sativa subsp. nigra, Vicia sepium, Vicia sylvatica, Vicia tenuifolia, Vicia tetrapermum, Vicia villosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis antoni Hansson, 1985 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Eurytenes maculipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius gracilis Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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