The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823a. Agromizides Sveciae : 6
Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823a; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 116
Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 31, 36, 38, 110
Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 108-9, figs 169-70.
Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 53, 55, 56 (fig. 203).


Leaf-mine: Larva forming a long, irregular linear mine, conspicuously widening at end but not developing into a blotch; frass in diffused central green band; older mines appear whitish with little evidence of frass (Spencer, 1972b: 36, fig. 104).

Upper-surface corridor, widening to the end, but never becoming a primary blotch, and only rarely a secondary one. Sides irregularly eaten out. No association with the leaf venation. Frass in a diffuse, central, green band. After a shower or two most of the frass is washed out and the mines appear white. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long upper surface gallery widening towards the end. Greenish, diffused frass. (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The bright yellow larva is described by de Meijere (1925) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs on short conical projections (Spencer, 1976: 108).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Cannabiaceae        
Humulus       Robbins, 1991: 71
Humulus lupulus Hop British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Humulus lupulus Hop British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Humulus lupulus Hop British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 110

Hosts elsewhere:

Cannabiaceae        
Humulus       Spencer, 1990: 53
Humulus lupulus Hop British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 108
Humulus lupulus Hop British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-July, September-October.

Time of year - adults: May.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including London (Hampstead), Surrey (Godalming), Essex (Broxbourne), Suffolk (Chillesford), Norfolk (Norwich), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 110) and Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 71). East Sussex (VC14), Surrey and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 108), The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 546), Czech Republic, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Poland and Slovakia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Humulus lupulus ,

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Bracon epitriptus Marshall, 1885 Braconidae: Braconinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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