The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza frontella (Rondani, 1875)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Alfalfa blotch miner


Domomyza frontella Rondani, 1875. Bull. Soc. ent. ital. 7: 174
Domomyza frontella Rondani, 1875; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 120
Agromyza frontella (Rondani, 1875); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 37 (fig 114A), 41, 117
Agromyza frontella (Rondani, 1875); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 110-111, figs 173-179.
Agromyza frontella (Rondani, 1875); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 112, 133, 134 (figs 492-3).


Leaf-mine: Initially a linear mine running towards apex of leaf which then turns back and develops into a blotch in the area of the mid-rib (Spencer, 1972b: 37, fig. 114A; Spencer, 1976: 110, fig. 177).

Upper-surface corridor along the leaf margin, running from the leaf base to the tip. Once at the tip the corridor goes down over the midrib, widening considerably. Frass in the corridor part in a broad green central band, with minute black particles at either side. In the final, blotchy part frass in coarse black grains that may sometimes stick together. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925) and Dempewolf (2001 : 55).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracles each have 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 110).

Comments: Medicago sativa subsp. varia is treated as Medicago sativa nothossp. varia (Sand Lucerne) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fabaceae        
Medicago       Robbins, 1991: 43
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Melilotus       Robbins, 1991: 43
Trifolium pratense Red Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Rob Edmunds (pers. com.)

Hosts elsewhere:

Fabaceae        
Medicago       Spencer, 1976: 110
Medicago       Spencer, 1990: 112
Medicago       Dempewolf, 2001: 55
Medicago carstiensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago lupulina Black Medick British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 110
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago sativa subsp. falcata Sickle Medick British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago sativa subsp. varia Sand Lucerne   Bladmineerders van Europa
Melilotus       Spencer, 1976: 110
Melilotus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Melilotus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium dubium Lesser Trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June, August-September. There are at least two generations between June and September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Essex (Rainham and Colchester), Kent (Otford), Surrey (Godalming) (Spencer, 1972b: 41) and Warwickshire (Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 43). Cambridgeshire, Glamorgan, Pembrokeshire and SOuth Lancashire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in Europe, including Denmark (Spencer, 1976: 110), The Netherlands, Germany (Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the Near East (Martinez in Fauna Europaea) and North America (Spencer, 1976: 110).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Medicago lupulina, Medicago sativa, Medicago sativa subsp. falcata, Medicago sativa subsp. varia

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nitetis (Walker, 1939) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio pectinicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Gastrancistrus affinis Graham, 1969 Pteromalidae: Pireninae
Halticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster hortensis Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus misellus (Marshall, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa dryas (Nixon, 1948) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Heterolexis balteata (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Eurytenes maculipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius propodealis Fischer, 1958 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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