The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza lithospermi Spencer, 1963
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza lithospermi Spencer, 1963a. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. No. 115: 4
Agromyza lithospermi Spencer, 1963a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 32 (figs 86-7), 35, 109
Agromyza lithospermi Spencer, 1963a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera): 199.


Leaf-mine: Larvae forming large blotch mine (Spencer, 1972b: 32 (fig. 87), 35). Spencer's (1963a) description of the mine is rather succinct: "beginning with a narrow channel, then developing into a distinctive blotch, filled centrally with blackish frass; the mine does not occupy the entire leaf." In the figure he adds the initial corridor follows the leaf margin. Robbins (1991), without mentioning a source, adds that the mine resembles that of A. pseudorufipes, and that pupation is outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Boraginaceae        
Lithospermum officinale Common Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Lithospermum officinale Common Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lithospermum officinale Common Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Myosotis       British leafminers
? Myosotis       Robbins, 1991: 97

Myosotis

      Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Boraginaceae        
Lithospermum       Spencer, 1990: 199
Lithospermum officinale Common Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lithospermum purpureocoeruleum Purple Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July.

Time of year - adults: June, September.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: England including Hereford (Tarrington and Woolhope) and Cambridge (Chippenham Fen and Kirtling) (Spencer, 1972b: 35); ge (Chippenham Fen and Kirtling) (Spencer, 1972b: 35) and Oxford (NBN Gateway). Northants (Yardley) (British leafminers); East Gloucestershire (VC33), Oxfordshire (VC23) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Romania (Spencer, 1990), Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1999), Austria, French mainland and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Lithospermum officinale

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa abdita (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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