The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Amauromyza flavifrons (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza flavifrons Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 184
Amauromyza flavifrons (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 46
Amauromyza (Trilobomyza) flavifrons (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 162-3, figs 293-297.
Amauromyza flavifrons (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 63, 69, 70, 204, 231, 233, 385.


Leaf-mine: A white linear-blotch mine, the linear section sometimes not detectable as it becomes enveloped in later blotch (Spencer, 1976: 162-3, figs 296-7).

Upper-surface, less often lower-surface, corridor, followed, and often overrun, by a large blotch. Even when the corridor is overun, it usually remains recognisable in the frass pattern. The mine looks whitish in the field. The blotch does not contain much frass, in the form of small black grains, dispersed and stuck to the floor of the mine. Feeding punctures upper-surface (always?). Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A common miner, forming a white linear blotch mine (the blotch may obscure the linear portion of the mine) in both native and garden plants (British leafminers).The mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 162).

Comments: Records of flavifrons on Glechoma [Lamiaceae] (Robbins, 1991: 103; Pitkin & Plant) [Lamiaceae] are doubtful and require confirmation. In England flavifrons occurs commonly in gardens on Dianthus species (Spencer, 1976: 163).

Lychnis chalcedonica is treated as Silene chalcedonica (Maltese-Cross); Lychnis coronaria is treated as Silene coronaria (Rose Campion) and Lychnis flos-cuculi is treated as Silene flos-cuculi (Ragged-Robin) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caryophyllaceae        
Agrostemma       Robbins, 1991: 33
Agrostemma githago Corncockle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 21
Dianthus       Mines in BMNH
Dianthus       Robbins, 1991: 33
Dianthus       British leafminers
Dianthus       Spencer, 1972b: 110
Dianthus x allwoodii     Robbins, 1989: 21
Dianthus barbatus Sweet-William British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Dianthus barbatus Sweet-William British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 21
Dianthus caryophyllus Clove Pink   Mines in BMNH
Dianthus plumarius Pink   Mines in BMNH
Lychnis       Spencer, 1972b: 110
Lychnis coronaria Rose Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 33
Lychnis coronaria Rose Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Saponaria       Robbins, 1991: 33
Saponaria       Spencer, 1972b: 46
Saponaria officinalis Soapwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Saponaria officinalis Soapwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 33
Saponaria officinalis Soapwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 110
Silene latifolia subsp. alba     Mines in BMNH
Silene latifolia subsp. alba     Robbins, 1991: 33
Silene latifolia subsp. alba     Spencer, 1972b: 110
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 33
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 21
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 110
Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Robbins, 1991: 34
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Spencer, 1972b: 111
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Spencer, 1972b: 111

Hosts elsewhere:

Caryophyllaceae        
Agrostemma       Spencer, 1990: 63
Agrostemma githago Corncockle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium       Spencer, 1990: 63
Cerastium caespitosum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium triviale    

Bladmineerders van Europa

Cucubalus baccifer Berry Catchfly   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus       Spencer, 1976: 162
Dianthus       Spencer, 1990: 63
Dianthus barbatus Sweet-William British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus carthusianorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus caryophyllus Clove Pink   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus collinus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus scaber     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus superbus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Gypsophila       Spencer, 1990: 63
Gypsophila paniculata Baby's-breath   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis       Spencer, 1976: 162
Lychnis       Spencer, 1990: 63
Lychnis chalcedonica Maltese-Cross   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis coeli-rosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis coronaria Rose Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged-Robin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis viscaria subsp. atropurpurea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Moehringia       Spencer, 1990: 63
Moehringia trinervia Three-nerved Sandwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Myosoton

aquaticum Water Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosoton aquaticum Water Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Stellaria aquatica

Saponaria       Spencer, 1976: 162
Saponaria       Spencer, 1990: 63
Saponaria ocymoides     Bladmineerders van Europa
Saponaria officinalis Soapwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene       Spencer, 1976: 162
Silene       Spencer, 1990: 63
Silene alba     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene annua     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene latifolia White Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene noctiflora Night-flowering Catchfly British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene nutans Nottingham Catchfly British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Silene cucubalus
Stellaria       Spencer, 1976: 162
Stellaria       Spencer, 1990: 63
Stellaria graminea Lesser Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria nemorum Wood Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana    

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Stellaria montana

Vaccaria       Spencer, 1990: 63
Vaccaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodiaceae       Bladmineerders van Europa
Atriplex       Bladmineerders van Europa
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Spencer, 1976: 162
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Spencer, 1990: 63
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium album Fat-hen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Spencer, 1976: 162
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Spencer, 1990: 63
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-October.

Time of year - adults: July.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread but local, including Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd), Dunbarton (Cardross) (Spencer, 1972b: 46), Warwickshire (Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 33), Anglesey, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Denbighshire, Dorset, East Norfolk, Easterness, Glamorgan, Leicestershire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, Montgomershire, Shropshire, SOuth Lancaster, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford and West Norfolk (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and not uncommon in much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 162), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 550), Albania, Corsica, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Romania, Sardinia and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). Range extending eastwards to Kirghiz Republic of U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 162).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1976: 162).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Agrostemma githago, Beta vulgaris Dianthus barbatus, Dianthus carthusianorum, Dianthus caryophyllus, Chenopodium album, Dianthus plumarius, Dianthus superbus, Lychnis chalcedonica (= Silene chalcedonica), Lychnis coronaria (= Silene coronaria), Lychnis flos-cuculi (= Silene flos-cuculi), Moehringia trinervia, Myosoton aquaticum, Saponaria ocymoides, Saponaria officinalis, Silene alba, Silene dioica, Silene latifolia, Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana, Silene noctiflora, Silene nutans, Silene vulgaris, Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Stellaria graminea, Stellaria holostea, Stellaria nemorum, Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis entedonoides (Walker, 1872) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus lateralis (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus trilobomyzae Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra sylvia (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Bracon atrator Nees, 1834 Braconidae: Braconinae
Opius ochrogaster Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma variegata (Sz├ępligeti, 1896) Braconidae: Opiinae

Adults:

Wing of Amauromyza flavifrons

Wing of Amauromyza flavifrons



External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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