The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Aulagromyza populi (Kaltenbach, 1864)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae] Poplar Leaf-miner

Agromyza populi Kaltenbach, 1864. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 21: 336
Phytomyzapopulivora Hendel, 1926. Blattminenkinde Europas 1: 55
Agromyza populi Kaltenbach, 1864; Hendel, 1932. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 288
Phytomyzapopulivora Hendel, 1926; Nowakowski, 1962. Annls zool., Warsz. 20: 102
Paraphytomyza populi (Kaltenbach, 1864); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 67
Paraphytomyza populi (Kaltenbach, 1864); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 320-1, figs 576-8.
Paraphytomyza populi (Kaltenbach, 1864); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 81, 93.
Aulagromyza populi (Kaltenbach, 1864)


Leaf-mine: A long winding, whitish linear mine, initially lower surface, later upper surface. Pupation takes place within the leaf, in a distinct pupariuml blister, the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 320-1, fig. 578).

Yellowish, tortuous corridor with the sides very untidily eaten out. The mine frequently starts at the lower surface, mostly, but by no means always, turning upper-surface later on. Frass in isolated grains, irregularly distributed at either side of the corridor. Puparium brown, in a widened pupariuml chamber in the mine; near the frontal end of the puparium the epidermis is already more or less torn open (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long winding white gallery (as shown), starting lower side, shallow and going upper side, broad. The mines may not be upper surface and in some cases may be totally lower surface. There may be several mines in a leaf (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by (Skuhravá and Roques, 2000) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Dark brown; posterior spiracles each having an ellipse of some 20 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 320). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Aulagromyza populi puparium
Aulagromyza populi puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Salicaceae        
Populus       Mines in BMNH
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 89

Hosts elsewhere:

Salicaceae        
Populus       Spencer, 1990: 81, 93
Populus alba White Poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus x berolinensis Berlin Poplar   Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus x canadensis Hybrid Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus deltoides Necklace Poplar   Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus x euramericana Hybrid Black Poplar   Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus gileadensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 320
Populus nigra Black-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus nigra 'italica'     Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus simonii Chinese-poplar   Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus tremula Aspen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Populus trichocarpa Western Balsam-poplar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: September, November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including London (Hampstead), Surrey (VC17), Oxford (Spencer, 1972b: 67) and Warwickshire (Canley, Coleshill and Foleshill) (Robbins, 1991: 89). Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershirem and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in western and central Europe including Denmark, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 320), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs et al., 1994), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 562), Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Slovakia and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards to the Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 320).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Populus alba, Populus x berolinensis, Populus x canadensis, Populus gileadensis, Populus nigra, Populus tremula, Populus trichocarpa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus diallus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus crassinervis Erdös, 1958 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Schimitschekia populi Boucek, 1965 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus albipes (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus lateralis (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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