number of larvae feeding together to form a conspicuous, mottled
greenish mine. Pupation laterally across the leaf at end of mine
(Spencer, 1972b: 100).
to 12 eggs are separately inserted in a leaf, not far from the apex.
The young larvae begin making a short, narrow, corridor that runs
upwards. Soon the direction reverses, the corridors quickly become
wider and fuse. The result is a large blotchy mine, generally containing
several larvae. The mine is very inconstant in depth, making it
vary, when seen by transparency, from green to almost vitreous.
Mines contain several lumps of frass. Pupation in the mine. The
pupariria lie close together in a row, in the lowest part of the mine,
oriented perpendicularly to the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Forms a blotch mine, which may be large when several mines coalesce (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by Nowakowski (1973).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: Early Autumn (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Abundant throughout southern
counties (Spencer, 1972b:
100) including Gloucester (Cheltenham) (British
leafminers); East Sussex (VC14), Radnorshire and Surrey (NBN
elsewhere: Widespread in western Europe including French mainland,
Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland and Portuguese mainland (Martinez
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: