The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Cerodontha luctuosa (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza luctuosa Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 182
Dizygomyza effusi Karl, 1926. Stettin ent. Ztg. 87: 136
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) luctuosa (Meigen, 1830); Nowakowski, 1962. Annls zool., Warsz. 20: 135
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) luctuosa (Meigen, 1830); Nowakowski, 1967. Polskie Pismo ent. 37: 640
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) luctuosa (Meigen, 1830); Nowakowski, 1972. Polskie Pismo ent. 42(4): 757
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) luctuosa (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 101
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) luctuosa (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 214-7, figs 370-4.
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) luctuosa (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 331, 345, 346 (figs 1304-6), 351.


Leaf-mine: Elongated, mainly interparenchymal mine in the part of the stem above the flower stalk. Frass in one large mass. Pupation internal (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1934) and Nowakowski (1973). Posterior spiracles with 3 clawlike bulbs. Also de Meijere (1928a, 1934a, 1941a, 1950a) discussed and described the larva (partly as als effusi) but part of his material comes from Carex hirta and refers to Cerodontha hirtae Nowakowski.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The early generation puparium is pale yellowish, that of the overwintering generation darker, reddish brown (Spencer, 1976: 216, 215 (fig. 373)).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Juncaceae        
Juncus effusus Soft rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 127
Juncus effusus Soft rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 125

Hosts elsewhere:

Juncaceae        
Juncus articulatus Jointed Rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Juncus bufonius Toad Rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Juncus conglomeratus Compact Rush   Bladmineerders van Europa
Juncus effusus Soft rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Juncus effusus Soft rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 345
Juncus inflexus Hard Rush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June to September; hibernation as puparium in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: June-September.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Hampshire (New Forest), Somerset (Radstock), Cambridgeshire (Chippenham Fen), Chester (Rostherme). Merionethshire (Barmouth), Aberdeenhire (Balmoral Forest), Banff (Falls of Tarnash and Glen of Drumloch) (Spencer, 1972b: 101), Warwickshire (Coleshill and Bedworth) (Robbins, 1991: 127); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Suffolk (VC25), Middlesex (VC21), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b: 101).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and frequently common in much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 216), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 554), Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Sicily, Slovakia and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the U.S.A. and Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 120).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Juncus articulatus, Juncus bufonius, Juncus conglomeratus, Juncus effusus, Juncus inflexus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus cytherea (Nixon, 1937) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Laotris striatula (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia posticatae (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
 


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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