The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Cerodontha phalaridis Nowakowski, 1967
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Cerodontha (Poemyza) phalaridis Nowakowski, 1967. Polski Pismo ent. 37(4): 647
Cerodontha (Poemyza) phalaridis Nowakowski, 1967; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 99 (fig. 344), 102
Cerodontha (Poemyza) phalaridis Nowakowski, 1967; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 355, 368 (fig. 1384), 369.


Leaf-mine: Broad mine that starts at leaf apex. Frass in large clumps. Pupation usually external (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Nowakowski (1973). Anterior spiracles with about 15 bulbs; bulbs of the posteriro spiracles with contorted openings (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black, not very shining, depressed and with fairly deep constrctions between the segments. Posterior spiracles on two cone-shaped divergent protuberances, drawn out in the shape of a dagger, not penetrating the epidermis. The spiracles on their bases resemble a broad M (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
? Phalaris       Robbins, 1983: 23
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 137
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 124

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 355

Time of year - mines: June-September (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: June, August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Norfolk (Middleton, High Fence); Suffolk (Butley) (Spencer, 1972b: 102) and Warwickshire (Longford, Coventry canal) (Robbins, 1991: 137).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe (Spencer, 1990: 369) including Poland (Nowakowski, 1967), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland and Germany (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Phalaris arundinacea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus enephes (Nixon, 1845) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela flavicoxa (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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