mine that starts at leaf apex. Frass in large clumps. Pupation usually
external (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by Nowakowski (1973). Anterior spiracles with about 15 bulbs; bulbs of the posteriro spiracles with contorted openings (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Black, not very shining, depressed and with fairly deep constrctions between the segments. Posterior spiracles on two cone-shaped divergent protuberances, drawn out in the shape of a dagger, not penetrating the epidermis. The spiracles on their bases resemble a broad M (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines:
June-September (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: June, August.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Norfolk (Middleton,
High Fence); Suffolk (Butley) (Spencer, 1972b: 102) and Warwickshire (Longford, Coventry canal) (Robbins,
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe (Spencer,
1990: 369) including Poland (Nowakowski,
1967), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland and Germany
(Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: