rather narrow mine, upper surface or interparenchymal. The mine
changes direction twice (upper to lower or vice versa). The mine
frequently finishes in the leaf sheath. Frass in one or two large
clumps (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Posterior spiracles widely separated, each with three strongly elongated nulbs, that stand out from their base like a hen's toes (Nowakowski, 1973).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
April-Spetember, rarely November (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: South Gloucester (Gibbs,
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elsewhere: Not uncommon in northern and central Europe from
Finland to Bulgaria (Spencer,
1990: 345), Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary and Poland (Martinez
in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: