Leaf-mine: The larva mines the lower surface of rachis, close to the lesf tip.
The upper surface is left intact, resulting in growth disturbance
that causes the leaf tip to strongly curl downwards. Larva generally
solitary. Pupation within the roll (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The miner causes the pinna tip to curl downwards (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1911) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. The larval mouthparts are illustrated in British
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Included in Redfern et al. (2002:
397, fig 645) in keys to galls, although the diagnostic features
state the 'white larva mines along main vein'. Ackland in Chandler
(1978) did not indicate whether his host record was British or Foreign
and is therefore included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere'.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: August - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widely distributed
including Warwickshire (Robbins,
1991), Berkshire (VC22), Breconshire (VC42), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sussex (VC14), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Isle of Man (VC71), Isle of Wight (VC10), North Essex (VC19), North Lincolnshire (VC54), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Oxfordshire (VC23), Shropshire (VC40), South Devon (VC3),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8),
South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Sussex (VC13), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands
(Bladmineerders van Europa) and Belgium (Gosseries
and Ackland, 1991), Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Lithuanaia, Norwegian mainland, Russia
- Central and North, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Sweden (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).
recorded East Palaearctic Region (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.