The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia primulae (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza primulae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851. Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 3: 396
Phytomyza primulae Goureau, 1851. Annls. Soc. ent. Soc. Fr. (2) 9: 151
Phytomyza primulae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 458.
Phytomyza primulae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 94
Phytomyza primulae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 472-3, figs 830-1.
Chromatomyia primulae (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 90 (fig. 334), 94, 390.
Phytomyza primulae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: Mine long and narrow, white, with frass in conspicuous, widely spaced black lumps. Pupation in the mine adjoining a vein, with anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 472).

Untidy, generally for most part upper-surface, corridor. Frass in widely scattered, relatively large, grains. Pupation wthin the mine, generally in a lower-surface pupariuml chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine long and narrow, white, with frass in conspicuous, widely spaced black lumps. Pupation in the mine adjoining a vein, with anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis. Anterior spiracles divided into two arms; posterior spiracles each on a large, widely-separated conical protuberance, with a total of up to 30 minute pores (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 206) and Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Varies from whitish to reddish-brown. Anterior spiracles divided into two arms; posterior spiracles each on a large, widely-separated conical protuberance, with a total of up to 30 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 472). The anterior spiracles of the puparium, that are unusually long, penetrate the epidermis, as is the rule in the genus Chromatomyia (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis. Anterior spiracles divided into two arms; posterior spiracles each on a large, widely-separated conical protuberance, with a total of up to 30 minute pores (British leafminers).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Primulaceae        
Primula       Mines in BMNH
Primula       Dempewolf, 2001: 206
Primula       Spencer, 1972b: 94
Primula farinosa Bird's-eye Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Primula farinosa Bird's-eye Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Primula veris Cowslip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Primula veris Cowslip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 94
Primula veris Cowslip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Primula veris Cowslip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 94
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland in Whiteley, 1994

Hosts elsewhere:

Primulaceae        
Primula       Spencer, 1976: 472
Primula bullesiana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Primula elatior Oxlip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Berg, 1975
Primula elatior Oxlip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Primula elatior Oxlip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 90
Primula officinalis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Primula uralensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Primula veris Cowslip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Primula veris Cowslip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 472
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 472
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 472
Primula vulgaris Primrose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 90

Time of year - mines: January, June-November.

Time of year - adults: July.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widespread throughout England and Scotland, including Perthshire (Killin), Sutherland (Lairg) (Spencer, 1972b: 94), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Rum (Bland in Whiteley, 1994), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 94), Channel Is. (Martinez in Fauna Europaea), Anglesey, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Denbighshire, Dorset, East Cornwall, East Gloucestershire, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, Isle of Wight, Merionethshire, North Ebudes, North Essex, North Somerset, South Devon, South Somerset, South Wiltshire, Leicestershire, Main Argyll, Merionethshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Monmouthshire, North Devon, North Ebudes, North Essex, North Somerset, North-east Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, South Devon, South Lancashire, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey, West Gloucester, West Ross, Westerness and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Burren) and Co. Kerry (Kilarney) (Spencer, 1972b: 94).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in western Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 472), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), Poland (Spencer, 1990: 90), Canary Is., Czech Republic, French mainland, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Lithuania and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Primula elatior, Primula farinosa, Primula veris, Primula vulgaris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Hemiptarsenus fulvicollis Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Epiclerus panyas (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa discolor (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa plantaginis Griffiths, 1967 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela melanocera (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia irregularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma caesa (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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