The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Clanoneurum cimiciforme (Haliday, 1855)
[Diptera: Ephydridae]


Discomyza cimiciforme Haliday, 1855. Nat. Hist. Rev. 2: 124
Cyclocephala margininerve Strobl, 1902. Glasn. zemalj. Mus. Bosni. Herceg. 14: 502
Clanoneurum infumatum Becker, 1903. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 2 (3): 165
Heringium ephydrininum Enderlein, 1934. Zool. Anz. 105: 193
Discomyzoides longicornis Becker, 1926. 56a. Ephydridae. Fliegen pal. Reg. 6 (1): 23.
Clanoneurum cimiciforme (Haliday, 1855).


Leaf-mine: Broad mine of variable depth. Frass spread irregularly. Pupation usually internal, seldom external (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described Hering (1962); anterior spiracles each with 2 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Irwin and Chandler in Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether their host records were British or Foreign and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere'.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Chenopodiaceae        

? Atriplex

      Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224 and as Halimione
? Beta       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
? Salicornia       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
? Spergularia       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
? Suaeda       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224

Hosts elsewhere:

Chenopodiaceae        

? Atriplex

      Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224 and as Halimione
Atriplex       Bladmineerders van Europa
Atriplex       Hering, 1957
? Beta       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
Beta       Hering, 1957
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima Sea Beet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Beta maritima
Obione       Hering, 1957
? Salicornia       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
Salicornia       Hering, 1957
Salicornia europaea Common Glasswort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Spergularia       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
? Suaeda       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 224
Suaeda       Bladmineerders van Europa
Suaeda       Hering, 1957

Time of year - mines: May-September (Hering, 1957).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Recorded in Britain by Irwin (1978: 224) including Essex (Essex Field Club), East Kent, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, Montgoemrshire, North Essex, North Lincolnshire, Pembrokeshire, South Essex and West norfolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Germany (Hollmann-Schirrmacher and Zatwarnicki, 1999), Belgium (Gosseries, 1991d), Austria, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Crete, Croatia, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Poland, Romania, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in North Africa (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, Salicornia europaea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.



External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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