Tunnel follows erratic routes; the larva leaves the tunnel occasionally
and recommences tunneling elsewhere in the same leaf or another leaf;
at the termination of some of the mines a special double-walled
chamber is constructed, possibly for moulting (Bland
and Rotheray, 1994: 34).
larvae of a number of species of Chironomidae (non-biting midges)
live in tunnels in decaying leaf sheaths under water. Their tunnels
are open at both ends, and the larvae feed on particles they obtain
from a water current they create in the tunnels. They do not feed
on tissues of their 'hostplant' and therefore are not strictly miners
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Cranston in Chandler, 1978
(1978) did not indicate whether his host record was British or Foreign
and is therefore included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere'.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: August.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Perth (Kindrogan) (Disney,
1977) and Isle of Coll (Loch Con and Grishipool) (Bland
and Rotheray, 1994: 34). (NBN Atlas).
Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Republic of Moldova, Russia - North and Northwest, Slovakia,
Sweden and The Netherlands (Saether and Spies, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.