The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Delia echinata (Seguy, 1923)
[Diptera: Anthomyiidae]

Spinach stem fly


Chortophila echinata Seguy, 1923. Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 91: 360
Hylemyia scanica Ringdahl, 1926. Ent. Tidskr. 47: 118.
Delia echinata (Seguy, 1923).


Leaf- and stem-mine: Eggs are scattered individually over the leaf upper surface; they are only loosely attached to the plant. The egg shell has a honeycomb structure. The larva begins with first mining one of the top leaves completely out. Next the larva moves down to another leaf, by way of a tunnel made in the stem. In this way several leaves are mined out, completely and full depth. In the attacked part of the plant the stem has become translucent; the damage causes the plant tip to wilt. In the first mines almost no frass is to be found, further down it is deposited in coarse grains. Pupation generally outside the mine (Miles, 1953) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The mandible of the full-grown larva has one hook-shaped tooth (Miles, 1953).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Griffith (1982) records echinata as a leaf-miner and in the stems of many Caryophyllaceae and Chenopodiaceae. According to G.C.D. Griffiths (pers. comm.) the records of D. echinata on Phlox are doubtful. Ackland in Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether his host records were British or Foreign and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere'.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caryophyllaceae        

? Agrostemma

      Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Arenaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Cerastium       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Cerastium fontanum Common Mouse-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
? Cerastium fontanum subsp. holosteoides Common Mouse-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 34
? Dianthus       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Gypsophila       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Lychnis       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Saponaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Silene       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 34
? Spergularia       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Stellaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
? Vaccaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Vaccaria hispanica Cowherb   Pitkin & Plant
Chenopodiaceae        
? Atriplex       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Atriplex       Robbins, 1991: 34
? Chenopodium       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Spinacia       Miles, 1953
Polemoniaceae        

? Phlox

      Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227

Hosts elsewhere:

Amaranthaceae        
Amaranthus       Hering, 1957
Amaranthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Caryophyllaceae        

? Agrostemma

      Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Agrostemma       Hering, 1957
Agrostemma githago Corncockle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Arenaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Arenaria       Hering, 1957
Arenaria serpyllifolia Slender Sandwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium       Bladmineerders van Europa
? Cerastium       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Cerastium       Hering, 1957
Cerastium nutans     Griffiths, 1991
Cerastium beringianum     Griffiths, 1991
Cerastium triviale     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Dianthus       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Dianthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus       Hering, 1957
Dianthus caryophyllus Clove Pink   Griffiths, 1991
? Gypsophila       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Gypsophila       Hering, 1957
Gypsophila       Bladmineerders van Europa
? Lychnis       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Lychnis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis       Hering, 1957
? Saponaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Saponaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Saponaria       Hering, 1957
? Silene       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Silene       Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene       Hering, 1957
? Spergularia       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Spergularia       Hering, 1957
? Stellaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Stellaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria       Hering, 1957
? Vaccaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Vaccaria       Hering, 1957
Chenopodiaceae        
? Atriplex       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Atriplex       Bladmineerders van Europa
Atriplex       Hering, 1957
? Chenopodium       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Chenopodium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium       Hering, 1957
Spinacia olearacea Spinach   Suwa, 1974
Polemoniaceae        

? Phlox

      Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 227
Phlox       Hering, 1957
Primulaceae        
Primula       Hering, 1957

Time of year - mines: Larvae throughout the summer in 2 or 3 generations (Hering, 1957).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Warwickshire (Allesley, Dosthill and Keresley) (Robbins, 1991); Anglesey (VC52), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cardiganshire (VC46), Cumberland (VC70), Dorset (VC9), County Durham (VC66), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Huntingdonshire (VC31), North Somerset (VC6), Orkney (VC111), Oxfordshire (VC23), Peebles, Pembrokeshire (VC45), West Gloucestershire (VC34), Westmorland (VC69) and Zetland (NBN Atlas).

NDistribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Gosseries and Ackland, 1991), Andorra, Austria, Canary Is., Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Is., Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Italian mainland, Madeira, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - East and North, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden and Switzerland (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Japan (Suwa, 1974), Canada and Alaska (Griffiths, 1991).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Arenaria serpyllifolia, Agrostemma githago, Cerastium fontanum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. holosteoides, Silene dioica, Vaccaria hispanica, Dianthus caryophyllus, Spinacia oleracea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Biosteres rusticus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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