The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Galiomyza morio (Brischke, 1880)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza morio Brischke, 1880. Schr. naturf. Ges. Danzig 5: 258
Liriomyza morio (Brischke, 1880); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 50
Liriomyza morio (Brischke, 1880); Spencer, 1976. Fauna entomologica scandinaviaca 5(1): 256-8, figs 454-5
Galiomyza morio (Brischke, 1880); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 77, 234 (fig. 884) 235, 236.


Leaf-mine: A narrow linear mine which may largely fill small leaves and produce a secondary blotch (Spencer, 1976: 257).

Long, upper-surface, gradually widening, corridor, in the end often forming a secondary blotch. The corridor regularly crosses itself. Frass in irregular grains or short strings. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms a narrow upper surface linear mine which may then form a secondary (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925) and Dempewolf (2001: 145); posterior spiracles with 13-15 bulbs in a ellipse. The few living larvae I have seen of G. galiivora all were bright yellow, contrary to the whitish larvae of morio; if this is a reliable differentiating character remains to be seen (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Orange; posterior spiracles each having an ellipse of 8-13 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 257).

Comments: Galium mollugo is treated as Galium album (Hedge Bedstraw) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Rubiaceae        
Galium      

Pitkin & Plant, as Asperula

Galium       Robbins, 1983: 24
Galium       British leafminers
Galium       Spencer, 1972b: 119, as Asperula
Galium aparine Cleavers British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 105
Galium odoratum Woodruff British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers, as Asperula odorata
Galium odoratum Woodruff British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Galium odoratum Woodruff British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119, as Asperula
Galium saxatile Heath Bedstraw British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Rubiaceae        
Cruciata laevipes Crosswort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium       Spencer, 1976: 257
Galium       Spencer, 1990: 235
Galium       Spencer, 1990: 235, as Asperula
Galium aparine Cleavers British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium aristatum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium boreale Northern Bedstraw British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium megalospermum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium mollugo Hedge Bedstraw British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium odoratum Woodruff British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium odoratum Woodruff British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 257, as Asperula
Galium odoratum Scotchmist   Dempewolf, 2001: 145
Galium rotundifolium     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium rubioides     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium schultesii     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium sylvaticum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galium sylvaticum     Spencer, 1976: 257
Galium verum Lady's Bedstraw British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rubia       Spencer, 1990: 235
Rubia peregrina Wild Madder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rubia tinctorum Madder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sherardia       Spencer, 1990: 235
Sherardia arvensis Field Madder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Surrey (Great Humble), Buckinghamshire (Beaconsfield) (Spencer, 1972b: 50), Warwickshire (Exhall) (Robbins, 1991: 105), East Gloucester (Snowshill) (British leafminers); Carmarthenshire (VC44), North Lincolnshire (VC54), Pembrokeshire (VC45), South-west Yorkshire and Stafford (NBN Gateway).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 257), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 257; Dempewolf, 2001: 145), Corsica, Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Poland and Romania (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Cruciata laevipes, Galium aparine, Galium boreale, Galium mollugo, Galium odoratum, Galium saxatile, Rubia peregrina, Rubia tinctorum, Sherardia arvensis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus avesta (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius cingulatus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius flammeus Fischer, 1959 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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