The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Gymnophytomyza heteroneura (Hendel, 1920)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza heteroneura Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7) (1918): 163
Phytomyza heteroneura Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1936. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 518
Phytagromyza nigrivenis
Spencer, 1959. Entomologist's Gaz. 10: 165. [Synonymised by Spencer and Martinez, 1987]
Phytagromyza nigrivenis Spencer, 1959; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 50
Gymnophytomyza heteroneura (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 326, fig. 590.
Gymnophytomyza heteroneura (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 235, 236, 237 (fig. 889).

Seed-feeder: Pupation external.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 158).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland: Currently unknown.

Hosts elsewhere:

Galium aparine Cleavers British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 326
Galium aparine Cleavers British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 235
Galium aparine Cleavers British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 158

Time of year - larvae: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Uncommon. Dorset (Axmouth) (Spencer, 1972b: 50) and Essex (Epping Forest) (pers. comm. D. Henshaw).

Distribution elsewhere: Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Denmark (Spencer, 1976: 326), France (adults in BMNH collection), Greek mainland, Hungary and Switzerland (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Galium aparine

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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