Leaf-mine: Larva initially forming an irregular linear mine, which later develops
into a conspicuous blotch; frass conspicuous.
an upper-surface, narrow corridor of about 3 cm, that abruptly widens
into an ill-coloured secondary blotch, which generally incorporates
more or less of the corridor. Secondary feeding lines usually conspicuous.
Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
an iregular upper surface blotch with conspicuous black frass (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described Sasakawa (1961)
and Dempewolf (2001: 147).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Puparium orange (Bladmineerders van Europa). Posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of about 10 bulbs.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: June-October.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Westmorland
(Grasmere) (Spencer, 1972b:
52), Warwickshire (Allesley) (Robbins,
1991: 106), Midlothian (Duddingstone Loch) and other localities
in East Lothian (VC82), Midlothian (VC83), Fife and East Perth (Bland,
1994c: 82), Gloucester (Sandhurst) (British
leafminers); Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21), South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Surrey and West Kent (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Dublin, Co. Wexford (New Ross)
(Spencer, 1972b: 52).
Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland,
Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 229),
The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de
Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer,
1976: 554; Dempewolf, 2001:
147), Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Lithuania,
Madeira, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania and Slovakia (Martinez
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: