The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltenbach, 1873)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza eupatorii Kaltenbach, 1873. Pflanzen-Feinde : 320
Agromyza eupatorii Kaltenbach, 1873; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 217
Liriomyza orbitella Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 236. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976]
Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltenbach, 1873); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 48, 49 (fig. 158), 54, 111, 113, 114, 116
Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltenbach, 1873); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 245-6, figs 425-7.
Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltenbach, 1873); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 205, 209, 259, 263, 274, 275, 277, 287, 288 (figs 1099-1101), 289, 291, 386.


Leaf-mine: A linear mine commencing with a conspicuous regular spiral and then continuing a considerable distance more or less straight (Spencer, 1976: 245).

Upper-surface corridor. The first part is wound in a dense spiral that quickly turns brown. The spiral continues in a long, generally unbranched corridor that maintains almost the same width. Frass in long thick strings. When the mine is positioned near the leaf margin the spiral part may be missing; the thick frass strings then are sufficiently characteristic. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Long upper surface gallery starting with a spiral of 6 to 8 turns (as shown). Frass in conspicuous narrow linear lines (British leafminers).

The mine is also illustrated the Encyclopedia of Life.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Aster       Spencer, 1972b: 111
Aster       British leafminers
Eupatorium       Robbins, 1991: 113
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Helianthus       Pitkin & Plant
Helianthus       British leafminers
Lapsana       British leafminers
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Solidago       Robbins, 1991: 112
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Lamiaceae        
Galeopsis       Robbins, 1991: 103
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Aster       Spencer, 1976: 245
Aster       Spencer, 1990: 274
Aster       Bladmineerders van Europa
Eupatorium       Spencer, 1990: 289
Eupatorium aromaticum Wood Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 245
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Helianthus       Spencer, 1976: 245
Helianthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lapsana       Spencer, 1976: 245
Lapsana       Spencer, 1990: 259
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Solidago       Spencer, 1990: 274
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamiaceae       Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis       Spencer, 1990: 205
Galeopsis angustifolia Red Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis pubescens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis segetum Downy Hemp-nettle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis speciosa Large-flowered Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 245
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including Surrey (Holmbury St Mary), Dorset (Lyme Regis), Cambridge (Chippenham Fen) (Spencer, 1972b: 54), Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers), Warwickshire (Kingsbury and Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 112 and 113) and Northampton (British leafminers); Anglesey, Cambridgeshire, Cumberland, Glamorgan, North Essex, Mid-west Yorkshire, North Essex, North Somerset, Shropshire, South-west Yorkshire, West Gloucestershire and West Lancashire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 245), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558), Belgium, Corsica, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 174; Spencer, 1976: 245).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Eupatorium aromaticum, Eupatorium cannabinum, Galeopsis angustifolia, Galeopsis segetum, Galeopsis speciosa, Galeopsis tetrahit, Lapsana communis, Solidago virgaurea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Sphaeripalpus fuscipes (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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