The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza hieracii Kaltenbach, 1862
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Liriomyza hieracii Kaltenbach, 1862. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 19: 36
Liriomyza hieracii Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1971a. Ent. Gaz. 22: 166.
Liriomyza hieracii Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 48, 56 (fig. 188), 57, 113
Liriomyza hieracii Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 251-2, figs 440-1.
Liriomyza hieracii Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 259, 262 (fig. 985), 263.


Leaf-mine: A small primary upper surface blotch (Spencer, 1976: 251).

Primary upper-surface blotch. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Posterior spiracles each with about 8 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 251).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Hieracium       Mines in BMNH
Hieracium       Robbins, 1991: 123
Hieracium sabaudum     Robbins, 1989: 22, as perpropinquum
Hieracium vulgatum Common Hawkweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Hieracium       Spencer, 1976: 251
Hieracium       Spencer, 1990: 259
Hieracium lachenalii Tall Hawkweed   Spencer, 1976: 251
Hieracium lachenalii Tall Hawkweed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium laevigatum Tongue-leaved Hawkweed   Spencer, 1976: 251
Hieracium laevigatum Tongue-leaved Hawkweed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium murorum     Spencer, 1976: 251
Hieracium murorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium sparsum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium vulgatum Common Hawkweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 251
Hieracium vulgatum Common Hawkweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain, including Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd), London (Hampstead), Somerset (Cheddar), Derby (Miller's Dale) (Spencer, 1972b: 57) and Warwickshire (Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 123); North Somerset (NBN Atlas).

Leaf mines probably referable to this species also seen at Kent (Dungeness) (Spencer, 1972b: 57).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Finland, Norway, Sweden and Germany (Spencer, 1976: 251), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic and Lithuania (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Hieracium lachenalii, Hieracium laevigatum, Hieracium murorum, Hieracium sabaudum, Hieracium vulgatum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.



External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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