The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza pusilla Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 185
Agromyza fasciola Meigen, 1838. Syst. Beschr. 7: 204
Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 48, 49 (fig. 157), 54, 111-2, 114
Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 266, figs 473-4.
Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 263, 270-1, 273-5, 277, 278 (figs 1051-4), 285, 295, 315-6, 319-20, 386, 398.


Leaf-mine: An irregular linear mine, which in small leaves can form a secondary blotch.

Long, upper-surface corridor, winding through the leaf and frequently crossing itself; in small leaves often a secondary blotch in the end. Frass in short strings and pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

An irregular gallery, sometimes crossing over, with black frass arranged as elongate very narrow streaks at the sides of the mine (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 150) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Orange; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Aster       British leafminers
Aster       Robbins, 1991: 112
Aster       Spencer, 1972b: 111
Aster novi-belgii Confused Michaelmas-daisy   Mines in BMNH
Bellis       Robbins, 1991: 113
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Solidago       British leafminers
Solidago       Spencer, 1972b: 54
Solidago canadensis Canadian Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Solidago canadensis Canadian Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 112
Solidago canadensis Canadian Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Aster       Spencer, 1976: 266
Aster       Spencer, 1990: 274
Aster bellidiastrum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellis       Spencer, 1976: 266
Bellis       Spencer, 1990: 274
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 150
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Callistephus       Spencer, 1990: 274
Callistephus chinensis China Aster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Crassocephalum       Spencer, 1990: 263
Epaltes       Spencer, 1990: 271
Hypochaeris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Solidago       Spencer, 1976: 266
Solidago       Spencer, 1990: 274
Solidago gigantea Early Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Tithonia       Spencer, 1990: 263
Vernonia       Spencer, 1990: 270
Xanthium       Spencer, 1990: 263

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: June.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Hertfordshire (Barnet), Devon (Slapton), Glamorgan (Cardiff), Sutherland (Loch Assynt) (Spencer, 1972b: 54); Warwickshire (Alleslley, Hartshill, Coventry and Wilncote) (Robbins, 1991: 113); Cambridgeshire, Shropshire and South-west Yorkshire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 54).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and common in much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 266), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558; Dempewolf, 2001: 150), Albania, Corsica, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Poland, Romania, Sicily, Slovakia and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aster novi-belgii, Bellis perennis, Callistephus chinensis, Solidago canadensis, Solidago gigantea, Solidago virgaurea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman, 1818) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus cambricus Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus misellus (Marshall, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Desmiostoma parvulum (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius lugens Haliday, 1837 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 22-May-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page