The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza valerianae Hendel, 1932
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Liriomyza valerianae Hendel, 1932. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 257
Liriomyza valerianae Hendel, 1932; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 51 (figs 161-2), 54, 121
Liriomyza valerianae Hendel, 1932; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 275, figs 494-5.
Liriomyza valerianae Hendel, 1932; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 245 (fig. 926), 246.


Leaf-mine: An irregular linear mine, which frequently follows the leaf margin, with conspicuous black frass (Spencer, 1972b: 51 (fig.162), 54; Spencer, 1976: 275).

Corridor, often quite contorted, not infrequently a secondary blotch. Frass in strikingly long strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925, as fasciola). Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 54; Spencer, 1976: 275).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 54).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Valerianaceae        
? Centranthus       Robbins, 1991: 108
? Valeriana       Robbins, 1991: 108
Valeriana dioica Marsh Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Valeriana dioica Marsh Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Valerianella       Robbins, 1991: 108

Hosts elsewhere:

Valerianaceae        
Centranthus       Spencer, 1990: 246
Centranthus ruber Red Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana alliariifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana dioica Marsh Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 275
Valeriana dioica Marsh Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana montana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 275
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as officinalis subsp. collina

Valeriana saxatilis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana tripteris     Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella       Spencer, 1990: 246
Valerianella locusta Common Cornsalad British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella olitoria     Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella pumila     Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella rimosa Broad-fruited Cornsalad   Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella vesicaria     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August.

Time of year - adults: May, August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Cambridge (Chippenham Fen), Wiltshire (Heddington) (Spencer, 1972b: 54), West Perth (Drumchastle) and Angus (Rossie Muir) (Bland, 1994c: 82); Main Argyll, Mid-west Yorkshire and
Stafford (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 275), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 562), Estonia, French mainland, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Centranthus ruber, Valeriana dioica, Valeriana officinalis, Valerianella locusta, Valerianella rimosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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