The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Liriomyza virgo (Zetterstedt, 1838)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza virgo Zetterstedt, 1838. Insecta Lapp.: 789
Agromyza virgo Zetterstedt, 1838; Hendel, 1932. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 260
Liriomyza virgo (Zetterstedt, 1838); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 52, 109
Liriomyza virgo (Zetterstedt, 1838); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 275-6, figs 385, 496-7
Liriomyza virgo (Zetterstedt, 1838); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 5, 6, 7 (figs 5-6).


Stem-miner: Larva forms an external stem mine which quickly turns black. Pupation internal, puparium projecting out of mine (Spencer, 1972b: 52; Spencer, 1976: 276).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 153).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Dark, posterior spiracles conspicuous enlarged, laterally extended processes, each with up to 40 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 52; Spencer, 1976: 276).

Comments: The larvae occur most commonly on plants actually growing in water (Spencer, 1976: 276).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Equisetaceae        
Equisetum fluviatile Water Horsetail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109

Hosts elsewhere:

Equisetaceae        
Equisetum       Spencer, 1990: 5
Equisetum arvense Field Horsetail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Equisetum fluviatile Water Horsetail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 276
Equisetum fluviatile Water Horsetail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 6
Equisetum fluviatile Water Horsetail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempwolf, 2001: 153

Time of year - mines: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: June.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in northern Britain including Stafford (Newcastle-under-Lyme) (Spencer, 1972b: 52); Easterness and Glamorgan (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland and Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 276), Germany (Dempwolf, 2001: 153), Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland, Lithuania, Poland and The Netherlands (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Alaska (Spencer, 1976: 276).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Equisetum arvense, Equisetum fluviatile

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa nigropygmaea Stelfox, 1954 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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