The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Paralleloma vittatum (Meigen, 1826)
[Diptera: Scathophagidae]


Cordylura vittata (Meigen, 1826). Syst. Beschr. 5: 236
Paralleloma vittatum (Meigen, 1826)
Americina vittatum (Meigen, 1826); Bladmineerders van Europa


Comments: Sifner (1978) synonymised Parallelomma paridis (and other species) with Paralellomma vittatum. According to Chandler (pers. comm., following Collin, who separated the adults on colour) Parallelomma paridis is a good species (on Liliaceae) and Paralellomma vittatum is only on Orchidaceae.

Leaf-mine: Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells.

The larvae make individual mines which then merge to form an upper surface blotch. The larva leaves the mine to pupate (British leafminers).

The leaf mine is also illustrated by Light & MacConaill (2014).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1940a) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and by Light & MacConaill (2014).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and by Light & MacConaill (2014).

The species has recently been recorded on the orchids Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens, Cypripedium reginae and Epipacris hellevorine in Canada (Light & MacConaill, 2014).

Dactylorhiza majalis is treated as Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Western Marsh-orchid) and Listera ovata is treated as Neottia ovata (Common Twayblade) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Orchidaceae        
Listera ovata Common Twayblade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Brian Pitkin (pers. observation)
Listera ovata Common Twayblade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. John Winterbottom (pers. comm.)

Hosts elsewhere:

Orchidaceae        
Cephalanthera       Hering, 1957
Cephalanthera damasonium White Helleborine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata

Cephalanthera rubra Red Helleborine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Cypripedium       Hering, 1957
Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens   Light & MacConaill, 2014
Cypripedium reginae     Light & MacConaill, 2014
Dactylorhiza maculata Heath Spotted-orchid British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Dactylorhiza majalis Western Marsh-orchid   Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Epipactis       Hering, 1957
Epipactis helleborine Broad-leaved Helleborine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Epipactis helleborine Broad-leaved Helleborine   Light & MacConaill, 2014
Epipactis palustris Marsh Helleborine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Gymnadenia       Hering, 1957
Gymnadenia conopsea Fragrant Orchid British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Listera       Hering, 1957
Listera ovata Common Twayblade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Ophrys       Hering, 1957
Orchis       Hering, 1957
Orchis mascula Early-purple Orchid British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Orchis purpurea Lady Orchid British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata

Time of year - mines: May

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread, but not common, in Britain including East Cornwall, East Kent, East Ross, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire North Ebudes, Warwickshire and West SUtherland (NBN Atlas). Also known from Dorset

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in Europe including The Netherlands and Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa); Belgium (Gosseries, 1991b), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - North, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden and Switzerland (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea) (Note records include Paralleloma paridis).

Also recorded in the Nearctic Region (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea (note records may include Paralleloma paridis), including Canada (Light & MacConaill, 2014).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cephalanthera damasonium, Cephalanthera rubra, Convallaria majalis, Dactylorhiza maculata, Dactylorhiza majalis (= Dactylorhiza kerryensis), Epipactis helleborine, Epipactis palustris, Gymnadenia conopsea, Listera ovata (= Neottia ovata), Maianthemum bifolium, Orchis purpurea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidiodea  
Stictomischus nitentis Delucchi, 1955 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Apodesmia saevula (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae
Biosteres analis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 08-Jun-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page