The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Pegomya flavifrons (Walker, 1849)
[Diptera: Anthomyiidae]


Pegomya flavifrons (Walker, 1849). List Dipt. Brit. Mus. 4: 966
Anthomyia albimargo Pandelle, 1901. Revue Ent. 20(Suppl.): 296. [Synonymised by Griffiths, 1982]
Pegomyia villeneuvei Hendel, 1925. Konowia 4: 302
Pegomyia celosiae Hering, 1932. Z. PflKrankh. 42: 570.


Leaf-mine: Upper side blotch mine beginning with a deeper, almost full depth corridor. Frass grains not in thread-like pieces, irregularly scattered. In the large, later blotch indistinct primary and secondary frass lines are found; the frass accumulated in the middle.

Each mine begins with one, rarely two, oval egg shells attached to the leaf underside. Sometimes a number of of young mines, and eggs, on one leaf. The first part of the mine is a tortuous corridor, quickly turning into a large blotch. Most of the blotch is full depth, only some patches are upper-surface, and greenish in transparency. According to the literature copious frass in present in dispersed lumps. In my experience the larva -that then looks very dark- may accumulate all frass in its body. The larva is capable of leaving its mine, and starting a new one elsewhere. These secondary mines can be recognised by the large hole that was made by the larva when entering. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A gallery then a blotch, larger and deeper than Amauromyza flavifrons. In large leaves the mine is upper surface and all in one piece. In small leaves the whole leaf may be covered by a full depth mine with the larva mining several leaves in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Posterior spiracles of larva each with 3 bulbs.

Comments: Ackland in Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether his host records were British or Foreign and are therefore included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere'.

Lychnis coronaria is treated as Silene coronaria (Rose Campion) and Lychnis flos-cuculi is treated as Silene flos-cuculi (Ragged-Robin) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caryophyllaceae        

? Cerastium

      Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Cerastium fontanum Common Mouse-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mike Ackland, pers. comm.
? Lychnis       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Lychnis       Robbins, 1991: 34
Myosoton       Robbins, 1991: 34
? Silene       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.  
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 34
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mike Ackland, pers. comm.
? Stellaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 34
Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 34

Hosts elsewhere:

Caryophyllaceae        

? Cerastium

      Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Cerastium       Hering, 1957
Cerastium triviale     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Lychnis       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Lychnis       Hering, 1957
Lychnis coronaria Rose Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged-Robin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Moehringia trinervia Three-nerved Sandwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosoton       Hering, 1957
Myosoton aquaticum Water Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Stellaria aquatica

? Silene       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Silene       Hering, 1957
Silene alba     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene italica Italian Catchfly   Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene noctiflora Night-flowering Catchfly British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Stellaria       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228, as albimargo
Stellaria       Hering, 1957
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria nemorum Wood Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria sessiliflora     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 34); Anglesey, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Main Argyll, Oxfordshire, Pembrokeshire, Shropshire, South Lancaster, Surrey and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe (Hering, 1957) including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Gosseries and Ackland, 1991), Andorra, Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - North and Northwest, Spanish mainland and Sweden (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Japan and Korea, North Africa and Nearctic Region (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cerastium fontanum, Lychnis coronaria, Lychnis flos-cuculi (= Silene flos-cuculi), Moehringia trinervia, Silene dioica, Silene italica, Silene noctiflora, Silene vulgaris, Stellaria holostea, Stellaria media, Stellaria nemorum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  

Lamprotatus splendens Westwood, 1833 [Not in UCD, see Yu, 2012]

Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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