The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza agromyzina Meigen, 1830
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza agromyzina Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 191
Phytomyza agromyzina Meigen, 1830; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 336
Phytomyza agromyzina Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 93 (fig. 321), 95, 115
Phytomyza agromyzina Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 370, figs 644-5
Phytomyza agromyzina Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 143, 144 (fig. 538), 154.


Leaf-mine: A long, narrow, upper surface mine widening at the end and with frass in conspicuous black strips. Pupation normally takes place on the ground but the puparium not infrequently remains in the exit slit at the end of the mine (Spencer, 1976: 370, 371 (fig. 645)).

Upper surface corridor from start to end. The frass liquifies partly, forming a a broad dark-brown central band. Pupation mostly outsaide the mine, but the puparium may often be found within. In that case often an untidy exit slit has been formed; the anterior spiracles do not penetrate the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long upper surface gallery. Frass broad, linear, conspicuous and black (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellowish-brown; posterior spiracles each with some 17 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 370).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Cornaceae        
Cornus       Mines in BMNH
Cornus       Robbins, 1991: 63
Cornus sanguinea Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Cornus sanguinea Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cornus sanguinea Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Cornaceae        
Cornus       Spencer, 1976: 370
Cornus alba White Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cornus canadensis Creeping Dogwood   Spencer, 1990: 154
Cornus mas Cornelian-cherry   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cornus sanguinea Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 370
Cornus sanguinea Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cornus sericea Red-osier Dogwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Probably widespread. Kent (Darenth), Sussex (Southlease), Devon (Wonwell), Norfolk (Norwich) (Spencer, 1972b: 95), Warwickshire (Coventry and Kingsbury) (Robbins, 1991: 63); Denbighshire, East East Gloucestershire, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, Huntingdonshire, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire, Monmouthhshire, North somerset, North SWiultshire, Nottinghmashire, Shropshire, South Lancaster, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey, West Gluocestershire and West Lancaster (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez, 2007 in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including the Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 370), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, Belarus, ? Corsica, Czech Republic, Denmark, European Turkey, French mainland, Iceland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, Poland, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden and Switzerland (Martinez, 2007 in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards to the Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 370).

Also recorded in Canada and the U.S.A. (Spencer, 1976: 370).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cornus alba, Cornus mas, Cornus sericea, Cornus sanguinea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Opius pulchriceps (Sz├ępligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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