The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872. Pflanzen-Feinde : 279
Phytomyza aegopodii Hendel, 1923a. Dt. ent. Z. 1923(4): 386. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 376]
Phytomyza laserpitii Hendel, 1924. Konowia 3: 140
Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 76 (figs 256)Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g), 78 (fig. 257), 80, 120
Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 376-8, figs 653-5. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g)
Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 159, 160, 162 (figs 582-3), 167, 172, 173.


Leaf-mine: Larva forms an upper surface primary blotch with several larvae feeding together; the blotch is greenish when fresh but becomes yellowish with age (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 257); Spencer, 1976: 376, 377 (fig. 655)).

Round or oval blotch, green at first, later yellowish. Young mine are interparenchymatous, only the older mines are truly full depth. Generally several larvae in a communal mine. Pupation outside the mine. Exit slit in lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A conspicuous, yellowish, almost circular upper surface blotch. Normally several mines on a leaf which may run together giving the impression of a single mine (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Allen (1956, 1957b), Griffiths (1973c), de Meijere (1926) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa ; posterior spiracles with approx. 20 bulbs.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black; each side of the anus has a distinct conical projection; posterior spiracles each having an ellipse of some 20 minute bulbs or bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 376). Illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Phytomyza angelicae puparium,  dorsal
Phytomyza angelicae puparium, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium       Robbins, 1991: 65
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Angelica       Robbins, 1991: 66
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, in Whiteley, 1994

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium       Spencer, 1990: 159
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 376
Angelica       Spencer, 1990: 160
Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica   Bladmineerders van Europa
Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica   Spencer, 1976: 376
Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 376
? Conioselinum       Spencer, 1990: 160
Heracleum       Griffiths, 1973c
Heracleum       Spencer, 1990: 160
Heracleum lanatum     Spencer, 1976: 376
Laserpitium       Spencer, 1990: 160
Laserpitium latifolium Broad-leaved Sermountain   Bladmineerders van Europa
Laserpitium latifolium Broad-leaved Sermountain   Spencer, 1976: 376
Laserpitium siler     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May, July-November.

Time of year - adults: August and April the following year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread throughout country, from Cornwall to Scotland (Spencer, 1972b: 80) including Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Rum (Bland in Whiteley, 1994), Warwickshire (Bubbenhall) (Robbins, 1991: 66); Cambridgeshire, East Sussex, North Somerset, South Somerset, Stafford, Surrey and West Sussex (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b: 80).

Distribution elsewhere: Europe (Spencer, 1976: 376) including Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1999), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 376), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Iceland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards to the Moscow region of Russia (Spencer, 1976: 376).

Also recorded in U.S.A. (Griffiths, 1973c) and Canada (Alaska) (Spencer, 1976: 376).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica archangelica, Angelica sylvestris, Laserpitium latifolium

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster hortensis Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus angelicae (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus armida (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa tarsalis Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia curvata Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia posticatae (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma curvata (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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