The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1923
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1932b. Z. PflKrankh. 42: 576
Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1932b; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 346
Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1932b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 78 (figs 261-2), 81, 120
Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1932b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5 (1): 378, figs 656-7
Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1932b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 160, 172 (fig. 645), 173.


Leaf-mine: Larva forming an irregular upper surface linear mine, which can widen and become almost blotch like at end (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 262), 81; Spencer, 1976: 378, 379 (fig. 657)).

Upper-surface blotch, often following the leaf margin for some length, finally strongly widened. The real start of the mine, however, is a long narrow epidermal corridor in the lower surface of the leaf, made by the first instar larva (Allen, 1956a). Pupation outside the mine, exit slit generally in the leaf lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

An upper surface mine, which can widen and form a blotch (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Allen (1957b), Griffiths (1973c), de Meijere (1938) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black; posterior spiracles each with 22-28 bulbs or bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 378).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium       Robbins, 1991: 65
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Angelica       Mines in BMNH
Angelica       Robbins, 1991: 66
Angelica       Ufton, 1981
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 378
Angelica       Spencer, 1990: 160
Angelica pancicii     Bladmineerders van Europa
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 378

Time of year - mines: May, July-September, November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread throughout Britain from Cornwall to Scotland (Spencer, 1972b: 81), Warwickshire (Ufton) (Robbins, 1991: 66); Anglesey, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Denbighshire, Haddington, East Ross, Easterness, Hertforshire, Leicestershire, Main Argyllshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, North Ebudes, Shropshire, South Lancaster, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Shetland, Stafford, Surreyand West Norfolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b: 81).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 378), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 378), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, French mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica sylvestris, Pastinaca sativa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis chlorogaster (Erdös, 1966) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus armida (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia curvata Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma curvata (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


XHTML Validator
Last updated 09-Nov-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page