The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza brunnipes Brischke, 1880
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza brunnipes Brischke, 1880. Schr. naturf. Ges. Danzig (N.F.) 5(1-2): 253
Phytomyza brunnipes Brischke, 1880; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 364
Phytomyza brunnipes Brischke, 1880; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 89 (fig. 298), 90, 121
Phytomyza brunnipes Brischke, 1880; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5 (1): 392-3, figs 686-7.
Phytomyza brunnipes Brischke, 1880; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 158, 159, 161 (figs 577-8), 178.


Leaf-mine: Mine irregularly linear, frequently following mid-rib of a leaf segment, appearing greenish or brownish (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 298), 90; Spencer, 1976: 292, 293 (fig. 687)).

Broad, brownish, upper-surface corridor. In most cases it makes a tour through an entire leaf by entering each segment in turn and making a loop up and down the main vein. Frass in grains. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The brown or green mine is linear and runs alonside the midrib on several segments of a leaf (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 181) and de Meijere (1928a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 298), 90).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Sanicula vulneraria     Mines in BMNH
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994c: 82

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Sanicula       Spencer, 1990: 159
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 393
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 181
Sanicula europaea Sanicle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-October.

Time of year - adults: April the following year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Surrey (Mickleham, Reigate), Hertfordshire (Brookman's Park) (Spencer, 1972b: 90), Gloucester (Cleeve Hill) (British leafminers), East Perth (Den of Riechip) and West Perth (Falls of Moness - vacated mines) (Bland, 1994c: 82); Brecon, East Norfolk, North Essex, South-west Yorkshire and West Gloucestershire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 393), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570; Dempewolf, 2001: 181), Czech Republic, Italian mainland, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Sanicula europaea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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