The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 367
Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 91 (fig. 313), 94, 118, fig. 311
Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5 (1): 394-6, figs 688-91
Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 6, 21, 23, 25 (figs 46-8), 169.


Leaf-mine: Mine linear but becoming very broad, up to 5mm, greenish, normally on lower leaves, near water (Spencer, 1972b: 91 (fig. 313), 94).

After a short lower-surface beginning follows a quickly widening, upper-surface corridor that is strongly contorted, and runs from the leaf base towards the margin to widen there into a blotch. Corridor sides very irregular. Primary feeding lines well visible. Frass in pearl chains. Before pupation the larva leaves the mine through a large semicircular exit slit; however, the black puparium mostly remains stuck under the exit flap. Exit slit in lower epidermis (Pakalniskis, 2004a) - see Bladmineerders van Europa.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Posterior spiracles greatly enlarged, each with two arms, the upper with a black finger-like extension 40-60 bulbs on the main process, with an additional 20-25 on the upper extension (Spencer, 1976: 394, 395 (fig. 691)). Described by Hering (1957b).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black (Spencer, 1976: 394, 395 (fig. 690)).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Caltha       Spencer, 1990: 21
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 394
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Wiltshire (Corsham) (Spencer, 1972b: 94) and Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992). East Ross and West Ross (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Germany (Spencer, 1976: 394), Czech Republic, French mainland, Norwegian mainland and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Caltha palustris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus calthae Griffiths, 1967 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela sulcata (Tobias, 1962) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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