calthivora Hendel, 1934
calthivora Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2):
Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk
ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 91 (fig. 313), 94, 118,
Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934; Spencer, 1976. Fauna
ent. Scand. 5 (1): 394-6, figs 688-91
Phytomyza calthivora Hendel, 1934; Spencer, 1990. Host
specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 6, 21,
23, 25 (figs 46-8), 169.
linear but becoming very broad, up to 5mm, greenish, normally on
lower leaves, near water (Spencer, 1972b: 91 (fig. 313), 94).
a short lower-surface beginning follows a quickly widening, upper-surface
corridor that is strongly contorted, and runs from the leaf base
towards the margin to widen there into a blotch. Corridor sides
very irregular. Primary feeding lines well visible. Frass in pearl
chains. Before pupation the larva leaves the mine through a large
semicircular exit slit; however, the black puparium mostly remains
stuck under the exit flap. Exit slit in lower epidermis (Pakalniskis,
2004a) - see Bladmineerders van Europa.
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Posterior spiracles greatly enlarged, each with two arms, the upper
with a black finger-like extension 40-60 bulbs on the main process,
with an additional 20-25 on the upper extension (Spencer,
1976: 394, 395 (fig. 691)). Described by Hering (1957b).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Black (Spencer, 1976: 394,
395 (fig. 690)).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: June.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Wiltshire (Corsham) (Spencer, 1972b: 94) and Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland,
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Germany (Spencer,
1976: 394), Czech Republic, French mainland, Norwegian mainland
and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: