The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b. Z. PflKrankh. 41: 539
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 368
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 91 (fig. 313), 94, 118
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5 (1): 396-7, figs 692-4
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 21, 23, 25 (figs 43-5), 169, 207.


Leaf-mine: Larva forming a long, narrow, upper surface mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 91 (fig. 313); Spencer, 1976: 394 (fig. 694), 395).

Long upper-surface, parallel-sided corridor, pale green, later browned. The corridor is little contorted and hardly branching. Frass in gradually coarser grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in lower epidermis (Hering, 1957) or upper epidermis (Pakalniskis, 2004a) - see Bladmineerders van Europa.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926, as nigritella). posterior spiracles strikingly large, bifid, with two long arms.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Brown; posterior spiracles greatly enlarged, each with 40 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 395).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Caltha       Robbins, 1991: 26
Caltha       British leafminers
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Caltha       Spencer, 1990: 21
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 396
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July, September.

Time of year - adults: August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread but local. Wiltshire (Corsham), Cambridge (Whittelstone), Norfolk (Norwich), Westmorland (Grasmere), Yorkshire (Malham Tarn) (Spencer, 1972b: 94), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Warwickshire (Sutton Park) (Robbins, 1991); East Ross, Main Argyll, Outer Hebrides and Westmorland (NBN Atlas). Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 94).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 396), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570), Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Caltha palustris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Seladerma scaea (Walker, 1844) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus tamiris (Nixon, 1943) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laeta (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela sulcata (Tobias, 1962) (as Dacnusa) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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