The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880. Schr. naturf. Ges. Danzig (N.F.) 5(1-2): 246
Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 389
Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 72 (fig. 235), 77, 117
Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 409-10, figs 716-7
Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 113, 138 (fig. 524), 139.

Leaf-miner: An irregular whitish, linear mine, frass in conspicuous black strips (Spencer, 1972b: 72 (fig. 235), 77; Spencer, 1976: 409 (fig. 717), 410).

Wide corridor, generally upper-surface but not rarely, partly or entirely, lower-surface. Primary feeding lines distinct. Frass at first in grains, later in short thread fragments to two close rows along the sides. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

An irregular, whitish gallery, usually upper side, but sometimes starting lower side. Frass conspicuous (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellow (brown); posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of up to 13 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 410).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Laburnum       Robbins, 1991: 41
Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al./a> Mines in BMNH
Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117

Hosts elsewhere:

Cytisus       Spencer, 1990: 113
Laburnum       Spencer, 1990: 113
Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 410
Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July, October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including London (Hampstead), Oxford (Oxford), Suffolk (Newmarket) (Spencer, 1972b: 77), Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 41) Carmarthenshire, East Suffolk, Easterness, Edinburgh, Glamorgan, South-west Yorkshire, Warwickshire and West Ross (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Common in western Europe (Spencer, 1976: 409) including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570), Czech Republic, French mainland, Poland and Sweden (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Laburnum anagyroides

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Baryscapus spenceri Graham, 1991 Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Halticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman, 1818) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera violacea Askew, 1972 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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