The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza glechomae Kaltenbach, 1862
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza glechomae Kaltenbach, 1862. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 19: 21
Napomyza glechomae (Kaltenbach, 1862); Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 313.
Phytomyza glechomae Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 96 (fig. 326), 97
Phytomyza glechomae Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 424, figs 737-8.
Phytomyza glechomae Kaltenbach, 1862; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 205, 207.


Leaf-mine: A distinctive mine with a short linear section at the beginning, then winding and forming a secondary blotch and finally a short straighter end section. Pupation internal or more normally the puparium falls to the ground (Spencer, 1972b: 96 (fig. 96), 97; Spencer, 1976: 324 (fig. 738).

The mine begins as a narrow corridor, with the frass in fine grains along the sides. In the next section the corridor is much wider and more closely wound, forming a secondary blotch; the frass now forms pearl chains. In the final section the corridor is again narrower, rather straight and especially interparenchymatous, greenish in transparency. Pupation outside the mine, but the puparium often sticks to the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A short upper surface gallery, then winding to form a blotch; finally becoming linear again- the last section being shallow and looking green (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Brown (Spencer, 1976: 424). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Phytomyza glechomae puparium
Phytomyza glechomae puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Lamiaceae        
Glechoma       Robbins, 1991: 103
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116

Hosts elsewhere:

Lamiaceae        
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 424
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 205
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May-August, October-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. Surrey (Mickleham), London (Hampstead), Norfolk (Norwich), Yorkshire (Croft area), Midlothian (Braid Hills) (Spencer, 1972b: 97), Hampshire (Crookham Village) (British leafminers), Bedford (Sandy) (British leafminers), Warwickshire (Dosthill, Hampton Wood and Ufton) (Robbins, 1991: 103); Cambridgeshire, East Kent, East Suffolk, Glamrogan, Leicestershire, Mid-west Yorkshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey and West Norfolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Poulavallen) (Spencer, 1972b: 97).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in western and central Europe including Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 424), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570), Czech Republic, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Glechoma hederacea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa confinis Ruthe, 1859 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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