in a leaf axil; from there a corridor descends along the leaf inner
side. Part of the length of the corridor is below the surface. Often
several mines per plant. Most of the feeding punctures are arranged
in lines, parallel to the leaf. Pupation takes place low in the
the plant, near the leaf base. The brown pupariria are situated within
the mine. They can best be found by bending the outer leaves outwards,
and inspecting their bases (Collins and Lole, 2005) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Larvae unusually large (5-8 mm); anterior spiraculum with 16-18
bulbs, posterior spiraculum with 30-34 (Seljak, 1998) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
A pest of leeks (Collins and Lole, 2005). It has taken until 1988
before the hostplant of the species became evident (1990). Since that year the species has manifested itself as a serious
pest on various Allium species (Seljak, 1998). It looks like
the problem is expanding westwards. One case concerned a leek plot
in Germany, just over the Dutch border (de Goffau, 2001). Part of
the damage was connected to feeding punctures that provided entrance
to fungus infections, but the main problem was the presence of numerous
larvae and pupariria - up to 100 in a single leek plant (Billen, 1998).
The reason why this species so suddenly has turned into a serious
pest is unclear. (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Anyone who thinks they may have gymnostoma on their leeks, onions or other related plants should report this to The Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate. There are local branches, but samples in adequately packaged containers can be sent direct to their headquarters at Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, YO4 1LZ.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
and Lole, 2005
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: West Midlands.
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, European
Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Lithuania, Poland, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia and North Africa (Martinez
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.