The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

Phytomyza hellebori Kaltenbach, 1872
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza hellebori Kaltenbach, 1872. Pflanzen-Feinde : 11
Phytomyza hellebori Kaltenbach, 1872; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 411
Phytomyza hellebori Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 426-7, fig. 743.
Phytomyza hellebori Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 21, 26 (fig. 52), 27.


Leaf-mine: May be several mines to a leaf, which are initially blackish, short and linear. A blotch is later formed. Pupation external, normally on lower surface (Spencer, 1976: 427).

The mine begins as a narrow, sometime stellate, strikingly dark corridor that slowly widens into an upper-surface blotch. Frass in pearl strings. Pupation within the mine, in a lower-surface pupariuml chamber; the anterior spiracula penetrate the epidemis (Hering, 1957; Spencer, 1976a; Stubbs, 2000a; Welch, 2000a). (Stubbs [2000a] describes the pupariuml chamber as upper-surface) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

May be several mines to a leaf, which are initially blackish (as shown), short and linear. A blotch is later formed (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Greyish-brown; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of some 20 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 427). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and British leafminers.

Phytomyza hellebori puparium
Phytomyza hellebori puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Adult: The adult fly is illustrated in British leafminers.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Helleborus foetidus Stinking Hellebore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Helleborus foetidus Stinking Hellebore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Stubbs, 2000: 33
Helleborus foetidus Stinking Hellebore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Storey, 2003
Helleborus niger Christmas Rose   Entomologists Record

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Helleborus       Spencer, 1976: 437
Helleborus       Spencer, 1990: 27
Helleborus dumetorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Helleborus foetidus Stinking Hellebore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Helleborus lividus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Helleborus niger Christmas Rose   Bladmineerders van Europa
Helleborus odorus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Helleborus purpurascens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Helleborus viridis Green Hellebore   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Autumn to Spring.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Southern Counties and East Anglia. Recorded new to Britain by Stubbs, 2000: 33-35). E. Northants, Huntingdonshire and Cambridge (Welch, 2000: 163-166), Surrey (Riddlesdown and Selsdon) (pers. observation) and Hampshire (Fleet and Winchfield) (British leafminers); Glamorgan, North Essex, Shropshire, South Essex and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Finland and Corsica (Spencer, 1976: 437), The Netherlands, Germany ( Bladmineerders van Europa ; Spencer, 1976: 570), French mainland and Italian mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Helleborus foetidus, Helleborus lividus, Helleborus niger, Helleborus viridis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.



External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


XHTML Validator
Last updated 06-Dec-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page