be several mines to a leaf, which are initially blackish, short
and linear. A blotch is later formed. Pupation external, normally
on lower surface (Spencer, 1976:
mine begins as a narrow, sometime stellate, strikingly dark corridor
that slowly widens into an upper-surface blotch. Frass in pearl
strings. Pupation within the mine, in a lower-surface pupariuml chamber;
the anterior spiracula penetrate the epidemis (Hering, 1957; Spencer,
1976a; Stubbs, 2000a; Welch, 2000a). (Stubbs [2000a] describes the
pupariuml chamber as upper-surface) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
be several mines to a leaf, which are initially blackish (as shown),
short and linear. A blotch is later formed (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Greyish-brown; posterior spiracles each with an
ellipse of some 20 bulbs (Spencer,
The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and British
The adult fly is illustrated in British
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: Autumn to Spring.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Southern Counties and East Anglia.
Recorded new to Britain by Stubbs,
2000: 33-35). E. Northants, Huntingdonshire and Cambridge (Welch,
2000: 163-166), Surrey (Riddlesdown and Selsdon) (pers. observation)
and Hampshire (Fleet and Winchfield) (British
leafminers); North Essex (VC19), South Essex and Surrey (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Finland
and Corsica (Spencer, 1976:
437), The Netherlands,
Germany ( Bladmineerders van Europa ; Spencer, 1976:
570), French mainland and Italian mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.