The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922. Wien. ent. Ztg. 39: 69
Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 93 (fig. 315Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g)), 94, 119
Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) :103, 105 (fig. 376), 106.

Leaf-mine: Mine irregularly linear, even forming secondary blotch. Pupation in mine (Spencer, 1972b: 93 (fig. 315).

Very shallow, irregularly branched corridor, sometimes a narrow blotch. The mine is upper-surface, sometimes also interparenchymatous. The colour is pale green, larer more rust-coloured. Frass in small, widely spaced grains. Papation takes place within the mine. Hibernation in the mine, among Fallén leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926) and Viggiani (1962).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Malus domestica is treated as Malus pumila (Apple) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Malus       Mines in BMNH
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119

Hosts elsewhere:

Malus pumila Apple   Bladmineerders van Europa, as M. domestica
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 107
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Local. Kent (Darenth) (Spencer, 1972b: 94).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Lithuania and Poland (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Malus domestica (= Malus pumila), Malus sylvestris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubens Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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