The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922. Wien. ent. Ztg. 39: 69
Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 93 (fig. 315Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g)), 94, 119
Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) :103, 105 (fig. 376), 106.


Leaf-mine: Mine irregularly linear, even forming secondary blotch. Pupation in mine (Spencer, 1972b: 93 (fig. 315).

Very shallow, irregularly branched corridor, sometimes a narrow blotch. The mine is upper-surface, sometimes also interparenchymatous. The colour is pale green, larer more rust-coloured. Frass in small, widely spaced grains. Papation takes place within the mine. Hibernation in the mine, among Fallén leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926) and Viggiani (1962).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Malus domestica is treated as Malus pumila (Apple) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Rosaceae        
Malus       Mines in BMNH
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119

Hosts elsewhere:

Rosaceae        
Malus pumila Apple   Bladmineerders van Europa, as M. domestica
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 107
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Local. Kent (Darenth) (Spencer, 1972b: 94).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Malus domestica (= Malus pumila), Malus sylvestris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubens Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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