The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza melana Hendel, 1920
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza melana Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7) (1918): 166
Phytomyza melana Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 429
Phytomyza melana Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 86 (fig. 288, 88, 121
Phytomyza melana Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 446-7, fig. 781.
Phytomyza melana Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 160, 169, 170 (fig. 628).


Leaf-mine: A short linear mine which considerably widens towards the end, normally starting in the centre of the leaf (Spencer, 1972b: 86 (fig. 288); Spencer, 1976: 447).

A short, narrow, upper-surface corridor, starting the in the centre of the leaf, that suddenly widens strongly. The widened corridor loosely follows the leaf margin. Frass in irregularly scattered black granules. Primary feeding lines conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine; according to Allen (1956a) the exit slit is in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Allen (1957b); posterior spiracles each with approx., 13 bulbs; frontal appendix absent (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black, oval; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 12-15 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 447).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip   Mines in BMNH
Pimpinella       Robbins, 1991: 65
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 447
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 160
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Surrey (Egham) (Spencer, 1972b: 88), Warwickshire (Sutton Park and Alderman's Green) (Robbins, 1991: 65); Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Germany, the [former] U.S.S.R (Ib, Byborg, Murula) (Spencer, 1976: 447) and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Pastinaca sativa, Pimpinella major, Pimpinella saxifraga

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus ornatus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus pimpinellae Griffiths, 1967 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus resa (Nixon, 1937) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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