minuscula Goureau, 1851
minuscula Goureau, 1851. Annls. Soc. ent. Fr. (2)9:
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen
palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 433
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk
ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 10, 71, 83 (fig. 269B), 90
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 381 (figs 663B; 450, 790
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1990. Host
specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 22, 43,
47, 48 (fig. 185), 50.
forming short, irregular white linear mine, with frass in conspicuous
black strips. Pupation external, normally adhering to the leaf near
the end of the mine until dislodged by rain or wind (Spencer, 1972b: 83 (fig. 269B; Spencer,
1976: 381 (figs 663B), 450).
pale green, upper-surface, fairly broad, waving corridor; relatively
short, up to 7 cm. Frass at first in grains, later in short thread
fragments or pearl strings, at either side of the corridor. Often
several mines in a leaf. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in
lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
A relatively broad, short upper surface gallery. Frass in conspicuous black stripes (British
mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1925),
Allen (1958) and Sasakawa (1961).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Reddish-brown (orange) (Spencer,
Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: June-September.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widespread throughout
the Britain, particularly in gardens (Spencer, 1972b) including Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins,
1991), Hampshire (Fleet) (British
leafminers); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Shropshire (VC40),
Stafford and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
elsewhere: Widespread in much of Europe including Denmark, Norway,
Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 450),
Switzerland (Mines in BMNH); The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de
Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991) and Germany (Spencer,
1976: 574), French mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Spanish mainland
(Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
recorded in the western U.S.A., the Himalayas and northern India
(Spencer, 1990: 28).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954
orbicularis (Nees, 1834)
pentheus (Walker, 1839)
trifasciatus Westwood, 1833
unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838)
chabrias (Walker, 1838)
isaea (Walker, 1838)
soemius (Walker, 1839)
minusculae Fischer, 1967
pallipes Wesmael, 1835
|Phaedrotoma minusculae (Fischer, 1967)
|Phaedrotoma staryi Fischer, 1958