The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Columbine leaf miner


Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851. Annls. Soc. ent. Fr. (2)9: 153
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 433
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 10, 71, 83 (fig. 269B), 90
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 381 (figs 663B; 450, 790
Phytomyza minuscula Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 22, 43, 47, 48 (fig. 185), 50.


Leaf-mine: Larva forming short, irregular white linear mine, with frass in conspicuous black strips. Pupation external, normally adhering to the leaf near the end of the mine until dislodged by rain or wind (Spencer, 1972b: 83 (fig. 269B; Spencer, 1976: 381 (figs 663B), 450).

A pale green, upper-surface, fairly broad, waving corridor; relatively short, up to 7 cm. Frass at first in grains, later in short thread fragments or pearl strings, at either side of the corridor. Often several mines in a leaf. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A relatively broad, short upper surface gallery. Frass in conspicuous black stripes (British leafminers).

The mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925), Allen (1958) and Sasakawa (1961).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown (orange) (Spencer, 1976: 450).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Aquilegia       Mines in BMNH
Aquilegia       Robbins, 1991: 28
Aquilegia       British leafminers
Aquilegia       Spencer, 1972b: 90
Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Thalictrum       Mines in BMNH
Thalictrum       British leafminers
Thalictrum       Spencer, 1972b: 90
Thalictrum flavum Common Meadow-rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Thalictrum delavayi Chinese Meadow-rue   British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Aquilegia       Spencer, 1976: 450
Aquilegia       Spencer, 1990: 22
Aquilegia aurea    

Bladmineerders van Europa,

Aquilegia chrysantha    

Bladmineerders van Europa,

Aquilegia pyrenaica Pyrenean Columbine  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Aquilegia alpina

Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Thalictrum       Spencer, 1976: 450
Thalictrum       Spencer, 1990: 43
Thalictrum aquilegiifolium French Meadow-rue   Bladmineerders van Europa
Thalictrum dasycarpum     Mines in BMNH
Thalictrum flavum Common Meadow-rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Thalictrum minus Lesser Meadow-rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Thalictrum sparsiflorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Thalictrum thunbergii     Bladmineerders van Europa
Thalictrum tubiferum     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widespread throughout the Britain, particularly in gardens (Spencer, 1972b) including Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991), Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers); Cambridgeshire, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Shropshire, Stafford and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in much of Europe including Denmark, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 450), Switzerland (Mines in BMNH); The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991) and Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), French mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the western U.S.A., the Himalayas and northern India (Spencer, 1990: 28).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aquilegia alpina, Aquilegia aurea, Aquilegia chrysantha, Aquilegia pyrenaica, Aquilegia vulgaris, Thalictrum aquilegiifolium, Thalictrum flavum, Thalictrum minus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Hemiptarsenus unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Opius minusculae Fischer, 1967 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma minusculae (Fischer, 1967) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma staryi Fischer, 1958 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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